Monday, September 30, 2019
Trantor was a world in dregs and rebirth. Set like a faded jewel in the midst of the bewildering crowd of suns at the center of the Galaxy Ã¢â¬â in the heaps and clusters of stars piled high with aimless prodigality Ã¢â¬â it alternately dreamed of past and future. Time had been when the insubstantial ribbons of control had stretched out from its metal coating to the very edges of stardom. It had been a single city, housing four hundred billion administrators; the mightiest capital that had ever been. Until the decay of the Empire eventually reached it and in the Great Sack of a century ago, its drooping powers had been bent back upon themselves and broken forever. In the blasting ruin of death, the metal shell that circled the planet wrinkled and crumpled into an aching mock of its own grandeur. The survivors tore up the metal plating and sold it to other planets for seed and cattle. The soil was uncovered once more and the planet returned to its beginnings. In the spreading areas of primitive agriculture, it forgot its intricate and colossal past. Or would have but for the still mighty shards that heaped their massive ruins toward the sky in bitter and dignified silence. Arcadia watched the metal rim of the horizon with a stirring of the heart. The village in which the Palvers lived was but a huddle of houses to her Ã¢â¬â small and primitive. The fields that surrounded it were golden-yellow, wheat-cIogged tracts. But there, just past the reaching point was the memory of the past, still glowing in unrusted splendor, and burning with fire where the sun of Trantor caught it in gleaming highlights. She had been there once during the months since she had arrived at Trantor. She had climbed onto the smooth, unjointed pavement and ventured into the silent dust-streaked structures, where the light entered through the jags of broken walls and partitions. It had been solidified heartache. It had been blasphemy. She had left, clangingly Ã¢â¬â running until her feet pounded softly on earth once more. And then she could only look back longingly. She dared not disturb that mighty brooding once more. Somewhere on this world, she knew, she had been born Ã¢â¬â near the old Imperial Library, which was the veriest Trantor of Trantor. It was the sacred of the sacred; the holy of holies! Of all the world, it alone had survived the Great Sack and for a century it had remained complete and untouched; defiant of the universe. There Hari Seldon and his group had woven their unimaginable web. There Ebling Mis pierced the secret, and sat numbed in his vast surprise, until he was killed to prevent the secret from going further. There at the Imperial Library, her grandparents had lived for ten years, until the Mule died, and they could return to the reborn Foundation. There at the Imperial Library, her own father returned with his bride to find the Second Foundation once again, but failed. There, she had been born and there her mother had died. She would have liked to visit the Library, but Preem Palver shook his round head. Ã¢â¬Å"It's thousands of miles, Arkady, and there's so much to do here. Besides, it's not good to bother there. You know; it's a shrine-Ã¢â¬Å" But Arcadia knew that he had no desire to visit the Library; that it was a case of the Mule's Palace over again. There was this superstitious fear on the part of the pygmies of the present for the relies of the giants of the past. Yet it would have been horrible to feel a grudge against the funny little man for that. She had been on Trantor now for nearly three months and in all that time, he and she Ã¢â¬â Pappa and Mamma Ã¢â¬â had been wonderful to her- And what was her return? Why, to involve them in the common ruin. Had she warned them that she was marked for destruction, perhaps? No! She let them assume the deadly role of protectors. Her conscience panged unbearably Ã¢â¬â yet what choice had she? She stepped reluctantly down the stairs to breakfast. The voices reached her. Preem Palver had tucked the napkin down his shirt collar with a twist of his plump neck and had reached for his poached eggs with an uninhibited satisfaction. Ã¢â¬Å"I was down in the city yesterday, Mamma,Ã¢â¬ he said, wielding his fork and nearly drowning the words with a capacious mouthful. Ã¢â¬Å"And what is down in the city, Pappa?Ã¢â¬ asked Mamma indifferently, sitting down, looking sharply about the table, and rising again for the salt. Ã¢â¬Å"Ah, not so good. A ship came in from out Kalgan-way with newspapers from there. It's war there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"War! So! Well, let them break their heads, if they have no more sense inside. Did your pay check come yet? Pappa, I'm telling you again. You warn old man Cosker this isn't the only cooperative in the world. It's bad enough they pay you what I'm ashamed to tell my friends, but at least on time they could be!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Time; shmime,Ã¢â¬ said Pappa, irritably. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, don't make me silly talk at breakfast, it should choke me each bite in the throat,Ã¢â¬ and he wreaked havoc among the buttered toast as he said it. He added, somewhat more moderately, Ã¢â¬Å"The fighting is between Kalgan and the Foundation, and for two months, they've been at it.Ã¢â¬ His hands lunged at one another in mock-representation of a space fight. Ã¢â¬Å"Um-m-m. And what's doing?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Bad for the Foundation. Well, you saw Kalgan; all soldiers. They were ready. The Foundation was not, and so Ã¢â¬â poof!Ã¢â¬ And suddenly, Mamma laid down her fork and hissed, Ã¢â¬Å"Fool!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Huh?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dumb-head! Your big mouth is always moving and wagging.Ã¢â¬ She was pointing quickly and when Pappa looked over his shoulder, there was Arcadia, frozen in the doorway. She said, Ã¢â¬Å"The Foundation is at war?Ã¢â¬ Pappa looked helplessly at Mamma, then nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"And they're losing?Ã¢â¬ Again the nod. Arcadia felt the unbearable catch in her throat, and slowly approached the table. Ã¢â¬Å"Is it over?Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"Over?Ã¢â¬ repeated Pappa, with false heartiness. Ã¢â¬Å"Who said it was over? In war, lots of things can happen. AndÃ¢â¬ ¦ and-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Sit down, darling,Ã¢â¬ said Mamma, soothingly. Ã¢â¬Å"No one should talk before breakfast. You're not in a healthy condition with no food in the stomach.Ã¢â¬ But Arcadia ignored her. Ã¢â¬Å"Are the Kalganians on Terminus?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ said Pappa, seriously. Ã¢â¬Å"The news is from last week, and Terminus is still fighting. This is honest. I'm telling the truth. And the Foundation is still strong. Do you want me to get you the newspapers?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes!Ã¢â¬ She read them over what she could eat of her breakfast and her eyes blurred as she read. Santanni and Korell were gone Ã¢â¬â without a fight. A squadron of the Foundation's navy had been trapped in the sparsely-sunned Ifni sector and wiped out to almost the last ship. And now the Foundation was back to the Four-Kingdom core Ã¢â¬â the original Realm which had been built up under Salvor Hardin, the first mayor. But still it fought Ã¢â¬â and still there might be a chance-and whatever happened, she must inform her father. She must somehow reach his ear. She must! But how? With a war in the way. She asked Pappa after breakfast, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you going out on a new mission soon, Mr. Palver?Ã¢â¬ Pappa was on the large chair on the front lawn, sunning himself. A fat cigar smoldered between his plump fingers and he looked like a beatific pug-dog. Ã¢â¬Å"A mission?Ã¢â¬ he repeated, lazily. Ã¢â¬Å"Who knows? It's a nice vacation and my leave isn't up. Why talk about new missions? You're restless, Arkady?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Me? No, I like it here. You're very good to me, you and Mrs. Palver.Ã¢â¬ He waved his hand at her, brushing away her words. Arcadia said, Ã¢â¬Å"I was thinking about the war.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But don't think about it. What can you do? If it's something you can't help, why hurt yourself over it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But I was thinking that the Foundation has lost most of its farming worlds. They're probably rationing food there.Ã¢â¬ Pappa looked uncomfortable. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't worry. It'll be all right.Ã¢â¬ She scarcely listened. Ã¢â¬Å"I wish I could carry food to them, that's what. You know after the Mule died, and the Foundation rebelled, Terminus was just about isolated for a time and General Han Pritcher, who succeeded the Mule for a while was laying siege to it. Food was running awfully low and my father says that his father told him that they only had dry amino-acid concentrates that tasted terrible. Why, one egg cost two hundred credits. And then they broke the siege just in time and food ships came through from Santanni. It must have been an awful time. Probably it's happening all over, now.Ã¢â¬ There was a pause, and then Arcadia said, Ã¢â¬Å"You know, I'll bet the Foundation would be willing to pay smuggler's prices for food now. Double and triple and more. Gee, if any co-operative, f'r instance, here on Trantor took over the job, they might lose some ships, but, I'll bet they'd be war millionaires before it was over. The Foundation Traders in the old days used to do that all the time. There'd be a war, so they'd sell whatever was needed bad and take their chances. Golly, they used to make as much as two million dollars out of one trip Ã¢â¬â profit. That was just out of what they could carry on one ship, too.Ã¢â¬ Pappa stirred. His cigar had gone out, unnoticed. Ã¢â¬Å"A deal for food, huh? Hm-m-m- But the Foundation is so far away.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, I know. I guess you couldn't do it from here. If you took a regular liner you probably couldn't get closer than Massena or Smushyk, and after that you'd have to hire a small scoutship or something to slip you through the lines.Ã¢â¬ Pappa's hand brushed at his hair, as he calculated. *** Two weeks later, arrangements for the mission were completed. Mamma railed for most of the time Ã¢â¬â First, at the incurable obstinacy with which he courted suicide. Then, at the incredible obstinacy with which he refused to allow her to accompany him. Pappa said, Ã¢â¬Å"Mamma, why do you act like an old lady. I can't take you. It's a man's work. What do you think a war is? Fun? Child's play?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then why do you go? Are you a man, you old fool Ã¢â¬â with a leg and half an arm in the grave. Let some of the young ones go Ã¢â¬â not a fat bald-head like you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not a bald-head,Ã¢â¬ retorted Pappa, with dignity. Ã¢â¬Å"I got yet lots of hair. And why should it not be me that gets the commission? Why, a young fellow? Listen, this could mean millions?Ã¢â¬ She knew that and she subsided. Arcadia saw him once before he left. She said, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you going to Terminus?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why not? You say yourself they need bread and rice and potatoes. Well, I'll make a deal with them, and they'll get it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, then Ã¢â¬â just one thing: If you're going to Terminus, could youÃ¢â¬ ¦ would you see my father?Ã¢â¬ And Pappa's face crinkled and seemed to melt into sympathy, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Ã¢â¬â and I have to wait for you to tell me. Sure, I'll see him. I'll tell him you're safe and everything's O.K., and when the war is over, I'll bring you back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks. I'll tell you how to find him. His name is Dr. Toran Darell and he lives in Stanmark. That's just outside Terminus City, and you can get a little commuting plane that goes there. We're at 55 Channel Drive.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wait, and I'll write it down.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, no,Ã¢â¬ Arcadia's arm shot out. Ã¢â¬Å"You mustn't write anything down. You must remember Ã¢â¬â and find him without anybody's help.Ã¢â¬ Pappa looked puzzled. Then he shrugged his shoulders. Ã¢â¬Å"All right, then. It's 55 Channel Drive in Stanmark, outside Terminus City, and you commute there by plane. All right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"One other thing.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Would you tell him something from me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I want to whisper it to you.Ã¢â¬ He leaned his plump cheek toward her, and the little whispered sound passed from one to the other. Pappa's eyes were round. Ã¢â¬Å"That's what you want me to say? But it doesn't make sense.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He'll know what you mean. Just say I sent it and that I said he would know what it means. And you say it exactly the way I told you. No different. You won't forget it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How can I forget it? Five little words. Look-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"No, no.Ã¢â¬ She hopped up and down in the intensity of her feelings. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't repeat it. Don't ever repeat it to anyone. Forget all about it except to my father. Promise me.Ã¢â¬ Pappa shrugged again. Ã¢â¬Å"I promise! All right!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"All right,Ã¢â¬ she said, mournfully, and as he passed down the drive to where the air taxi waited to take him to the spaceport, she wondered if she had signed his death warrant. She wondered if she would ever see him again. She scarcely dared to walk into the house again to face the good, kind Mamma. Maybe when it was all over, she had better kill herself for what she had done to them.
The Dynamics of WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Roles in Leadership Delora Murphy Wingate University Abstract The roles of women have been evolving for the last 100 years. Many women have shattered the stereotype that a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to be in charge of the family and have become leaders in a walks of life. Women have proved that they can be effective as business and government leaders. Although there are still gender biases that can exist, it is much move covert then it was 40 years ago.Oddly enough, some of the characteristics that have been viewed as the most necessary for leadership in roles of men, those same traits were viewed as negative characteristics of women in leadership roles. The role of the women has been evolving for many decades. In times, way before my own, a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role was to be the caregiver for her family. Although women, many have sought out an education, their main lifetime focus to be to support her husband and raise her children.Many women still choose this r ole today, but the point is that now they are allowed to choose a specific pathway in life rather than being forced to carry out established roles. This change of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles has been occurring in the United States for the last hundred years. Although this may seem like a long period of time, it is not. When roles are changed or reversed, this does not necessarily mean that everyone instantly converts to the new ideas and philosophies demonstrated by a group.Often times, there is a great deal of protest both within the changing group as well as those outside of the group. Despite the evolved roles of women in society, women still face many challenges in leadership positions. There are qualities that women possess that seem to help them rise to the top echelon of leadership positions, but there are still biases that exist that may inhibit women from reaching their goals. Women won the right to vote in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s; however, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s that the Ã¢â¬Å"WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s MovementÃ¢â¬ began.Granted womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles had been changing for 40 years prior to the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement, it was clear that this was not a natural evolution. Many people, both men and women, challenged the idea of a woman as an independent, productive citizen. Many women were ready to be seen and valued differently, but just because a group wants to be seen differently, does not mean that that is going to happen. This is usually the pivotal moment for most movements in History. A group seeks changes that others are adverse to seeing happen. The womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement called for fundamental changes in the roles of women.No longer did women want to be seen as the caregiver of the home, they wanted to be seen as independent people who could make important decisions and choose their educational and professional pathways. Today, in the United States of America, women are on a more equal footing with men in most cases: often by necessity, where wom en cannot complete in the workplace for jobs that were one traditionally held my men, also in light of two Ã¢â¬âparent working households. Although most career and professional opportunities are open to women in this country, there are still major discrepancies in the leadership positions that women hold.Among the US population 25 and above, 34 percent of women have obtained a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree compared with 30 percent of men. Of Graduate degreeÃ¢â¬â¢s held, women dominate that group with 39 percent of Graduate Degrees being held by men. Versus 21% percent, which are held by men. It would be appropriate after viewing these statistics, that one could assume that women hold the same, if not more, of the top leadership positions in business and politics, but this, in fact, is not the case. Forbes Magazine (2011) created and published a study with an emphasis breakdown on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles in top leadership positions. Only 6 percent of Fortune 100 CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s are women Ã ¢â¬ ¢ Only 8 percent of technology startup companies are lead by women Ã¢â¬ ¢ Only 9 percent of contributors on Wikipedia are women Ã¢â¬ ¢ Women account for only a tenth of the voting power on the wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ key interest rates Ã¢â¬ ¢ Only 13 percent of the top 100 billionaires worldwide are women Ã¢â¬ ¢ Only 15 percent of senior industry management positions belong to women. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Less than 18 percent of Congressional seats are held by women. Clearly, this poses a question about why women are still not sharing equal roles with men in the top leadership positions in this country.There are many different reasons for these statistics. One reason for this Ã¢â¬Å"leadership gapÃ¢â¬ is that women just donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask. This idea is explored by Babcock and Laschever (2007) in the book Women DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Ask by Babcock and Laschever. When Babcock questioned many graduate male students were teaching their own course while women were taking on the roles of assistants, her dean st ated, Ã¢â¬ More men ask. The women just donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask. Ã¢â¬ It turns out, that women are just more likely than men to ask for promotions or raises. This may be due to the facts that some women arenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware they should be asking and other women are fearful or damaging relationships.One interesting point to note is that a leadership characteristic that is identified differently in men and women is aggression. Many people positively define aggression as a positive leadership trait in men, but that exact same trait is viewed as negative in a women. Therefore, a women many sense that being aggressive may cause more harm than good when trying to obtain a high level position. Research published by Northhouse in his book Leadership, has also shown that women are more likely to take a passive role in obtaining leadership positions.They are more reluctant to be assertive in asking for positions, and try to obtain those roles through relationships and opportunity. (p. 357) In e ssence, it is a Ã¢â¬Å"double edged sword for a womanÃ¢â¬ . There is also no question that gender stereotypes still exist. Oddly enough, these stereotypes may produce more harm in the 21st century because they are more covert and hard to recognize. The show, Mad Men, shows how women were treated in the workplace. The sexual harassment and belittlement of women was obvious and apparent.Women were expected to fill certain roles in the workplace and men had no issues openly expressing their ideas on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles. Now, there is to be no such divide between genders. In fact, gender discrimination is breaking the law, so no longer can discrimination exist in any work place. However, this does not mean that these biases and feelings donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. On the contrary, there may be many people who feel like women are not capable of performing certain tasks, but because gender discrimination is illegal, these ideas are not openly shared, but that certainly doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist.Despite these things, many women have found success in the political and work setting. Interestingly, Dominance, aggression and assertiveness are not viewed as positive traits in women leaders, but these are the traits most people would identify with the top echelon leaders of the world, both politically and financially. So, what are some of the attributes that are seen in successful women? Five characteristics that most successful women share are: determination, resourcefulness, ambition, confidence, and the ability to create a maintain relationships. A successful woman is determined to have it all and make things work.At www. Successful Women. com, a guest writer describes the attributes of successful womenÃ¢â¬ ¦ determination, resourcefulness, engagement, ambition and confidence. Determination means having a strategic plan to accomplish a goal and now allowing anything or anyone to get in the way of that goal. True leaders know their best resource is in the hearts and minds of the people they are leading. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s not much more that causes distrust then a leader who claims to know everything about everything. A good leader must be able to be resourceful and find answers and solutions quickly.There is no question that ambition plays a large role in the making of a successful female leader. Women without ambition rarely achieve greatness. Queen Elizabeth I gave up the chance at a family (and had her own sister imprisoned) in order to rule England. Susan B. Anthony and many other suffragettes risked being ostracized and thrown in jail in order to spread the message of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equality. Throughout history, the most successful women have been willing to take control of their own lives and do whatever was necessary to reach their goals.Probably the most important character trait of a female leader is confidence. Of course, it is imperative for someone to have the skills, but most people will argue that confidence is the key to becoming a successful leader. Imagine trying to get a group to follow someone who lacks self-confidence and shows fear for a task. A leader with confidence acts with decisiveness and passion, which cause subordinates to feel like they can count on their leader. Another key trait is the ability to create and maintain appropriate professional relationships.Women must show enough empathy so that their subordinates feel supported, but not too much emotion as to get over involved with ones co workers, colleagues or subordinates. This is the Ã¢â¬Å"make it or break itÃ¢â¬ trait for many female leaders. People seem to be more conscious of the relationship that a women has with her subordinates. If a woman is seen as too empathetic, these may be seen as a weakness. If a women seems void of emotion, people may not feel comfortable or like they are able to Ã¢â¬Å"fit inÃ¢â¬ . WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles have been evolving for over 100 years.The road has been paved for a woman to make decisio ns about the course she chooses to live her life. The roadblocks for women have been moved out of the way. Regardless of gender biases that may still exist, a woman can be whatever she chooses to be. This does not meet that the leadership role is easy. For men and women alike, begin an effective leader is challenging ad requires special and specific characteristics to be effective. References Deborah Morrehead (2007). 9 Qualities of Smart, Successful Women. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. debramoorhead. com/blog/index. php/9-qualities-of-smart-successful-women/. Last Accessed 15 October 2012]. Denise Trauth (2002). The Changing Roles of Women. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. txstate. edu/news/news_releases/news_archive/2002/10/roleofwomen102102. html. [Last Accessed 8 October 2011]. Guest (2010). Five Characteristics of Successful Women. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. asuccessfulwoman. com/aswblog/five-characteristics-successful-women. [Last Accessed October 15 2012]. Kath erine W Hawkins, (1995). Effects of Gender Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups. Small Group Research. 26 (2), pp. 234-239Leslie Bradshaw (2011). Why Women Having A Seat at the Table is not Enough. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. forbes. com/sites/lesliebradshaw/2011/08/04/why-women-having-a-seat-at-the-table-is-not-enough/. [Last Accessed 15 October 2012]. Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever, (2007). Women Don't Ask: The High Cost of Avoiding Negotiation and Positive Strategies. 1st ed. New York: Bantam. Jossey Bass Publishers, (2007). Educational Leadership. 2nd ed. San Fransisco, California: Jossey Bass. Peter G Northhouse, (2013). Leadership Theory and Practice. 6th ed. Los Angeles: california: Houghton Mifflin.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
When are you entitled to deduct interest? If you run a business in part of your home, you are entitled to deduct part of the interest on money you borrowed to buy your home if: part of your home is set aside exclusively as a place of business and is clearly identifiable as such, and that part of the home is not readily adaptable for private use, for example, a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s surgery located within a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s home. If you rent out part of your home with access to general living areas on an armÃ¢â¬â¢s length basis, you are entitled to deduct part of the interest on money borrowed to buy the home (see Taxation Ruling IT 2167). In these situations you would satisfy the interest deductibility test. This means you would not obtain a full main residence exemption and so would have to pay tax on part of any capital gain made when you sell your home. You may satisfy the interest deductibility test even if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t borrow money to acquire your home Ã¢â¬â you must apply it on the assumption that you did borrow mon ey to acquire it. You also satisfy the test if you were entitled to claim a deduction for the interest, even if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually claim the deduction. There is a special rule to work out the amount of your capital gain or loss if you first use your home to produce income in a way that satisfies the interest deductibility test after 20 August 1996. Last Modified: Tuesday, 30 June 2009 Main residence exemption Ã¢â¬â the effect of using your home to produce income Where you first use your home to produce income after 20 August 1996 If you start using your home to produce income (in a way that would satisfy the interest deductibility test) for the first time after 20 August 1996, there is a special rule for working out your capital gain or loss. In this case, you are taken to have acquired your home at its market value at the time it is first used to produce income if all of the following apply: you acquired the home on or after 20 September 1985Ã you first used it to produce income after 20 August 1996 Ã you would get only a part exemption because the home was used to produce assessable income during the period you owned it, and you would have been entitled to a full exemption if you had sold the home immediately before you first used it to produce income. The effect of this rule applying is that the period before the home is first used by you to produce income is not taken into account in working out the amount of any capital gain or loss . The extent of the exemption for the period after the home was first used to produce income depends on the proportion of the home used to produce income. Example: Home first used to produce income after 20 August 1996 Louise purchased a home in December 1991 for $200,000. The home was her main residence. On 1 November 2001 she started to use 50% of the home for a consultancy business. At that time the market value of the house was $220,000. She decided to sell the property in August 2002 for $250,000. The capital gain is 50% of the proceeds less the cost base. Percentage of use X (proceeds Ã¢â¬â cost base) = capital gain 50% X ($250,000 Ã¢â¬â $220,000) = $15,000 Louise is taken to have acquired the property on 1 November 2001 at a cost of $220,000. Because she is taken to have acquired it at this time, Louise is taken to have owned it for less than 12 months and therefore cannot apply the indexation or discount method to calculate her capital gain.
Catherine Booth has strongly contributed to the expression and development of Christianity. Through developing the organisation The Salvation Army, Booth addressed discriminatory issues present in the Christian church such as the inequality of women and exclusion of the lower class. Booth has influenced, and still continues to influence Christian society by displaying female equality in the church, workplace and home. Her charity work through The Salvation Army altered ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of assisting all people in need and not distinguishing between Ã¢â¬Å"deservingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"undeservingÃ¢â¬ poor. Booth adapted her church to make it more holy, sacred and appealing to all in society, she placed emphasis on accepting the poor so that more people can go back to god. Catherine Booth influenced the Christian ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s belief of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. During her lifetime the Christian Church believed it was heretical to allow a woman to preach and teach adults. Booth began her work preaching in her home, then teaching in the Dockland parishes of Rotherhithe and Bermondsey1, and conducting evangelistic rallies. She was convinced that women had an equal right to preach and teach. This is displayed in her brochure Ã¢â¬Å"Female ministry; or womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to preachÃ¢â¬ where she stated Ã¢â¬Å"Why should a woman be confined exclusively to the kitchen and the distaff, any more than man to the field and workshop. Ã¢â¬ 2 Booth also pointed out that the first people who proclaimed the news of the resurrection of Jesus were women. Therefore, due to the strong leadership roles of women in JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s life, women have as much responsibility for the gospel as men. During her work of preaching, Booth received much criticism from Christians and the church, but she also challenged a lot of minds and became a role model for female ministry. Booth was a full and equal partner in establishing the well know organisation, The Salvation Army, which was initially known as The Christian Mission3. Due to her strong role in creating this charity Booth was proclaimed with the title Ã¢â¬Å"Mother of an ArmyÃ¢â¬ . Yet again, the salvation army received much censure from the government and Christian variants such as the Church of England for allowing women to have the same rights as men. Lord Shaftesbury, an evangelist and politician in her time stated Booth was an Ã¢â¬Å"elevation of women to manÃ¢â¬â¢s statusÃ¢â¬ 4. The impact and influence of the Salvation Army and itÃ¢â¬â¢s strong role of women let the Church of England to fear another schism in Christianity. When Catherine married William Booth in 1865 he initially disagreed with her beliefs of equality, especially in the church. Although, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before the couple announced their relationship as equal5, William even stated in relation to CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the Salvation Amy Ã¢â¬Å"the best men in my army are the women. Ã¢â¬ 6 Catherine Booth was, and continues to be an example of female equality in the church, workplace and home. Her actions in the 19th century influenced further Christian developments such as the feminist theology in the 20 and 21st century. BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s example continues to change and develop Christian beliefs in female equality; the majority of Christian churches now express women as equal and support their contribution in religious practices. Through her strong belief and acts on social justice, Catherine Booth has developed the expression of social justice in Christianity. She displayed how normal people, normal Christians can help and impact others by adhering to the two focusÃ¢â¬â¢ of social justice, direct aid and raising awareness to change unjust structures. Booth has always had this passion for social justice; when she was a child playing in her yard she watched the arrest of a drunken man. Instead of running away in disgust, Booth went and kept the man company, holding his until they reached the jail7. Moral stories like CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s continue to influence many people of a significant Christian belief, accepting and helping people. Through the work of the Salvation Army Booth approached the direct aid focus of social justice by establishing food for million shops and improving work conditions for women and children. She was distinct from the other charities and churches of her time, as she did not distinguish between Ã¢â¬Å"deservingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"undeservingÃ¢â¬ poor. This is evident through her successful campaigns, focusing on the raising awareness area of social justice, against the use of yellow phosphorus in matching making factories. Other campaigns included the injustice of Ã¢â¬Å"white slaveryÃ¢â¬ (prostitution of young women) which resulted in raising the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen years, and supporting the temperance society. 8 Catherine Booth stated Ã¢â¬Å"It is a shameful scandal on those Christians andlords who keep their tenants in buildings unfit for dogs. Ã¢â¬ 9 BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for social justice has contributed to the expression of Christianity by displaying JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ love for those in need and not distinguishing between the poor. In doing so, she has also influenced the way Christianity is perceived, this is evident through the high regard w hich the Salvation Army is now perceived in wider society. BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for social justice also developed a determination to initiate a more accepting and holy church in the Christian community. She abandoned the Christian denominations that she saw as too immutable and middle class, and reached out to those who were excluded from these churches. In the Salvation Army churches, Booth placed an emphasis on holiness and went against the use of sacraments such as communion and baptism. To promote and attract the poor and needy to the church, the salvation army used popular music and theatrical styles such as those that were used in America, this form of ministry was more accessible and appealing to the poor and lower class. 0 The result of BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s campaigns were shown in a 1882 survey; on one weeknight 17 000 people were recorded to be worshiping with the salvation army in comparison to 11 000 involved in ordinary church. 11 This statistic challenged other Christian variants to alter their own forms of worship. The goal of the salvation army continues to be the promotion of the Christian faith. 12 By inspiring people to go back to god, Booth remains an important figure i n Christianity. She encouraged the Christian church to accept people over all social classes into their ministry, and now in modern times the church supports and helps the unfortunate in developing their faith in god. Catherine BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on the development and expression of Christianity was immense. The acceptance and freedom of women and the lower class in Christian society is greatly due to Catherine Booth. She still continues to influence and contribute to Christianity to this day through her past examples of female equality and social justice. The Salvation Army remains BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy that assists all people in developing faith in god.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Is There Still Discrimination Towards Disabled People After the Equality Act 2010 - Dissertation Example The primary aim of the Equality Act 2010 is to commingle different laws into a concrete and systematic code that takes into consideration all anti-discrimination laws present in the UK. The purpose of the Equality Act 2010 is to codify both international and local laws such as such as the 1970 Equal Pay Act, the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act, the 1976 Race Relations Act and the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act.The primary aim of the Equality Act 2010 is to commingle different laws into a concrete and systematic code that takes into consideration all anti-discrimination laws present in the UK. The purpose of the Equality Act 2010 is to codify both international and local laws such as such as the 1970 Equal Pay Act, the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act, the 1976 Race Relations Act and the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act.Ã In order to protect disabled people from discrimination, the Act ensures that goods and service providers, landlords and employers are endowed with the responsibilit y of making reasonable modifications to their facilities to ensure access for disabled individuals (Evans 2011, 1).Ã The Equality Act 2010 does, however, allow service providers, landlords and employers to implement policies and practices that guarantee effective work operations despite appearing discriminatory. Available literature indicates the effectiveness of the law in deterring discrimination.Ã Since 2010, the UK has been free of discrimination towards disabled people, and this is largely attributable to the effectiveness of the Equality Act 2010 (Jackson and Banerjee 2013, 181).Literature review The literature review section of this paper analyses an array of available data on the effectiveness of the Equality Act 2010 in eradicating discrimination towards disabled people since 2010.The Equality Act 2010 ensures all public and private institutions implement the rights of disabled people as enshrined in the Act, as well as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Pe rsons with Disabilities.Ã Therefore, the 2010 Act is in line with this Convention on the protecting the rights of people with disabilities (Lawson 2011, 369).Ã The Act includes additional protection measures such as indirect discrimination.Ã This has enhanced analysis of disability-specific applications and offered new opportunities for debate regarding the need for greater protection of disabled people (Wallace 2011, 1).Ã Ã
ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS - Essay Example Environmental components Environment cycle is another component and refers to a natural process that makes it possible for particular elements to be continuously cycled within the environmental compartments such s the soil, air and water. By the help of various environmental cycles it becomes possible for balance to be provided and enhanced to the environment as a whole. Environment cycles exist in a perfect state of unbalance and itÃ¢â¬â¢s only through interference by various elements that a state of instability becomes present thus leading to an endangering of both abiotic and biotic components within its existence (Elizabeth, 2012). A cycle in the environment basically refers to an act of transfer of a particular atom that follows another in a cycle and in the process waste products is eliminated thus leading to environmental stability. There are various environmental cycles that are present in the environment that include: carbon cycle Ã¢â¬âwith carbon being the fourth most abundant element of the gaseous package of the environment. Carbon cycles take place through the ocean, land, atmosphere and the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s interior. ... Through decomposition of biological wastes by the involvement of microbes it also becomes possible for nitrogen to be released into the atmosphere. Human activity mainly involves the use of nitrogen as fertilizers (Gardner, 2011). Phosphorous cycle refers to the uptake of phosphorous by organisms. Rocks through the weathering process are that main producers of phosphorous in the environment and is mainly used by humans as fertilizers for their farm lands. Additionally water cycle simply refers to a process that makes it possible for water to be transferred from the atmosphere through condensation and its movement to the earth through precipitation after which itÃ¢â¬â¢s transferred to the normal atmosphere using basically the process of evaporation. In the first part of the report I will look at a more detailed understanding of the water cycle and focus on how human activities impact the process of water cycle in the environment (Elizabeth, 2010). Methodology The research will answe r the question of how the environmental process of the water cycle is impacted by various human activities. My research will involve the use of secondary data sources which will be through a review of literature on this topic from books, peer reviewed sources and electronic sources. Discussion Understanding the water cycle The water cycle is also commonly referred to as the hydrologic cycle to describe the transitional stages and processes that relate to the movement of water in the environment. Generally the global water cycle can be understood through a deeper review of nine major processes that form a basis for its movement. As a cycle, the water cycle has no start or conclusion and is basically referred to as an infinite continuous process. Water cycle takes into
Friday, September 27, 2019
Compairing and contrast (using car as a means of transport and using a motorcycle) - Essay Example Even in hot, humid or rainy conditions, car travel ensures a comfortable journey with the help of air-conditioning systems. The closed structure of the car helps the passengers to escape from rains. On the other hand, a passenger on motorcycle needs to face the eventualities with respect to climate changes. On hot seasons, the motorcyclist needs to suffer extreme heat and on rainy seasons, he has to face the problems associated with rains. The safety associated with car travel is more compared to a motorcycle journey. Car runs on four wheels and hence it is more stable than a motorcycle which runs on two wheels. The risk associated with car journey is less than the motorcycle journey. In case of an accident, car passengers have the assistance of different kinds of life saving supports, such as seat belts, airbags whereas a motorcyclist may not have the luxury of such safety measures. The only safety equipment and motorcyclist may have could be a helmet. Car travel cannot provide the thrill and entertainment associated with the motorcycle journey. It is easy for the motorcyclist to move rapidly on traffic filled roads because of the less space needed for it compared to cars. Even on roads where traffic is jammed because of some problems, motorcyclists can easily penetrate trough the jammed traffic because of the less space needed for its travel. Thus motorcycle travel ensures less delay in traveling and it eliminates unexpected road problems up to certain extent. Ã¢â¬Å"Motorcycles tell us a more useful truth: we are small and exposed, and probably moving too fast for our own good, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason not to enjoy every minute of the rideÃ¢â¬ (Sanborn) Motorcycles need less space for parking compared to cars. In other words, a motorcyclist can park his vehicle nearer to his destination whereas a car owner sometimes forced to park their vehicles even hundreds of meters away from his actual destination because of parking problems nearer to
The Importance Of Netpulses Technologies For Beach Bum In Relation To The Basic Lessons Learned In The Readings - Essay Example In the strategic planning process, information technology (IT) can enable a company to ensure that its products are of utmost quality and its services are user friendly consequently increasing customer retention and contentment. The discussion aims to recognize the importance of IT related services provided by Netpulse for Beach Bum, a gym facility providing organization. The strategies will be illustrated with the help of the implemented information systems. Assessment of the Importance of NetpulseÃ¢â¬â¢s Technologies for Beach Bum in Relation to the Basic Lessons Learned in the Readings Beach Bum, a business initiative to operate gym facility on the beach has desired to create a value driven partnership with Netpulse, a technological solution providing organization in order to augment customer contentment with the provided facilities. NetpulseÃ¢â¬â¢s technology can enable members of the gym to design their experience while they are working out. It can enable members to select t heir options from various available programs provided by Netpulse such as movie trailers, music videos and television shows among others. With reference to the context, it is assumed that Beach Bum will introduce NetpulseÃ¢â¬â¢s technologies as a tool of strategic planning.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Cybersecurity - Assignment Example They should be considered by the company as part of the security structure, and thus included in the responsibility scope. Addressing cyber security is not only an IT risk and issue. Organizations are now far too reliant on technology to survive such circumstances unscathed. Organizations must approach cyber security just like any other business risk. Particular subject matter experts can deal with the instant response and strategic details, but the leadership should identify and control the cascading monetary, reputational, in addition to operational impacts (Anderson, Schanfein, Bjornard & Moskowitz, 2011). It should as well as ensure effective and precise crisis communications all through all stakeholder-facing trade areas. It is possible to stop being skimmed. Look at the ATM entrance for sites where a scammer could hide a minute camera, like a brochure rack. Another way is to scrutinize the keypad to see if there is a false cover on top of it. In addition, look over the whole ATM for the parts that do not match in styling, material or color. Lastly, cover the hands when entering the PIN. It is one of the most effective and easiest ways to avoid an ATM scammers concealed
Finance - Essay Example The capital structures of the companies were affected strongly since the availability of debt capital financing as well as equity capital financing declined considerably. Under influence of the financial crunch firms reduced security issuance and financial institutions reduced issuance of loans by a large extent (Fosberg, 2012). Among many consequences, the major consequence faced by the firms was in their capital structure. The defaults of mortgage loans led to significant increase in debt amount of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure. Results of recent research show that between the years 2006 and 2008 the market debt ratio (MDR) of the firms increased on average by 5.5 percent (Fosberg, 2012). The financial crisis was supplemented by severe recession in the US economy which boosted the soaring market debt ratios of the firms. If the effect of recession is removed then debt accumulation of the firms solely due to the financial crisis has been found to be approximately 5.1 percent ( Fosberg, 2012). This affirms the severity of the effect of the financial crisis on debt accumulation by the corporations and their capital structure. ... n capital structure made by the financial crisis, different factors were adjusted, such as, reduced profitability of the firm that resulted from recession. Although the effects cast by the financial crisis were major, the effects of recession were also huge and put significant effects on the debt capital financing by the firms. This paper evaluates the effects of the crisis critically from the points of view of three most recognized theories of capital structure and provides explanation with the help of real examples of companies that have suffered the impacts of the crisis. Literature Review Brigham and Ehrhardt (2002) explain in their book, Financial Management, that capital structure is one of the important instruments that allow firms to maintain control of its administration. Improper capital structure might be fatal for any organization. Capital structure relates to the various components of the financial policies made by the firms regarding investment activities (Jones, 2011). It is related to bankruptcy risk that high leverage firms might face during financially instable times. While the use of more leverage magnifies returns for equity holders, the downside threat of holding a large amount debt is very high. Therefore, firms should carefully consider their capital structure in their financial policies (Gunay, 2002). Debt financing The proportion of debt financing in the capital structure of a firm differ between firms and also depend on the existing capital structure. The type of debt incurred and the extent up to which the debt is extended are decided by the factors such as the cost of the debt and its availability to the firm. Without taking bonds into consideration, debt financing can be categorized in to two types, namely, financial credits and trade
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Identify and describe a case for implementation of SAP Master Data Management at a four year university - Essay Example And Section table contains fields for Place, Time, Student ID, etc. whereas the Department table contains DeptID, Head, CourseID, etc. Also, the Pre-requisites table contains ID, CourseID, DeptID, etc. The University having different departments has a set of similar tables along with other tables, in each departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s database system. Although the data in it may vary, it is observed that there is some data across the departments that is the same for most of the time and does not change frequently, like the DeptID, Semester, Dept, CourseID, etc. Hence, it is created once and used many times over a period of time. Wikipedia defines Ã¢â¬Å"master data as the data used by different organizational components or by different systems that support an organizationÃ¢â¬ (2009). Hence, DeptID, Semester, Dept, CourseID, etc. in the University database system constitute the master data and this data is common across all departments. However, as the different departments have their own database systems and tools, the format of the data may vary according to the department specific transactions and the master data referring to the transactional data thereby is contained in a different data record format in each database. This leads to multiple records for a single entity and creates excess data and data redundancy. To change the redundant data, multiple fields in the databases have to be changed which is time-consuming. Also, there is scope for human error and is difficult to maintain. Hence, maintaining the database in the different departments is time-consuming and costly. With more redundant data and accessing and changing it becoming time-consuming, entering transactions, data retrieval for analysis and reporting, and communication between the different departments becomes more difficult and confusing. Problems in data entry due to difficulty in
Increasing compliance with asthma treatment (Noncompliance and poor compliance with asthma treatment has continued to increase c - Research Paper Example Meagre compliance puts pediatric patients in danger of more medical problem of continued disease. Non-compliance leads to difficulties in assessment of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. This is a cause for poor diagnosis and lowered quality of healthcare on the patient. Non-compliance causes the relationship between a patient and doctor to be complicated. For compliance to hold, it is important for the doctor to have a one on one relationship with the patient. Nearly a third of pediatric patients fail to comply with treatment in the short term. Non-compliance is not necessary dangerous or inappropriate in cases where patients fail to comply from fear of harm by the medication prescribed from their past experience and in cases where it is Ã¢â¬Ëintelligent non-compliance.Ã¢â¬â¢ Non-compliance takes various forms such as, failure to attend appointments, missing doses of medication. Patients may fail to make appropriate use of their inhaling device. Using an inhaling device wrongly could be intended or a mistake of competence on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s part. Pediatric physicians are encouraged to ensure children patients are well advised on use of inhaling devices whether their parents or those in charge of them are available or not for the sake of emergencies. Compliance in pediatric patients is determined by certain factors such as the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health literacy and their believe systems along with patientÃ¢â¬â¢s general education. PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to comply is dependent on other factors such as side effects of medication on the patient. Pediatric readmissions are at times consequences of wrong or inadequate instructions on medication by the physician giving prescriptions. Non-compliance leads to further complications that cause patients to spend more time and money in the process of treatment. Approximately $8.5 billion is spent unnecessarily each year on treatments related to non-compliance to medication. Such treatments involve both medical visits and hospitalization other than the initial treatment. This data by the National Pharmaceutical Council implies that most caregivers or parents in charge of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s medical prescription fail to insist on the importance of adherence to the prescriptions provided. Parents and caregivers are encouraged to seek assistance from physicians in case of emergencies whenever they can. They are advised on good knowledge of handling techniques for asthma in most situations. The Joint Commission in 2008, allowed and encouraged children hospitals to base compliance reports of core values as Children Asthma Care three. These values are easy to `adopt for hospitals and are efficient in encouraging adherence to medication. Compliance to CAC-1 and two has been on a high note while compliance to CAC-3 has yielded little (Krasnegor 2011). . In bid to reduce the number of asthma pediatric patients re admitted to hospital, organizations have created home based management plans to aid in prescrip tion adherence. The home management plan enhances the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s compliance after discharge. These initiatives require hospitals to commit to the process of creating adherence by developing an asthma-specific program. This program, Ã¢â¬Å"reminder and decision supportÃ¢â¬ facilitates discharge of patients while availing administrative and clinical needs at home and school. Reminder and Decision Support gives advice on
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARY - Assignment Example Each of these professionals worked with children in their homes. Each child had been diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Delays or Autism. The materials used during the study were written pamphlets and any manipulative materials such as flash cards, toys and treats necessary for the Discrete Trial Teaching instruction. The independent variable was the discrete trial teaching instruction delivered to each of the paraprofessionals. The dependant variable was the percentage of accuracy each paraprofessional displayed in correctly implementing the discrete trial instruction in a home setting. The procedure for this study involved training the paraprofessionals in a classroom setting until they were 100% accurate in delivering correct discrete trial teaching. They were then monitored over the space of several months to see how accurately they could generalize the skills to the children they worked with in their homes. Multiple observers were used as a part of this procedure, as was typ ical, non-specific supervision by agency supervisors. After arriving at 100% accuracy in the classroom setting, all three paraprofessionals showed very low accuracy scores at the beginning of the home sessions. Initially, they scored at 50%, 54% and 63% accuracy. After typical supervisory interventions over the next 1-3 weeks, all of the participants were operating above 95% accuracy. All participants were approaching 100% accuracy by the end of the study. The results suggest that training paraprofessionals in discrete trial teaching is an effective way to instruct children with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Delays in the home setting. The high percentages suggest that the paraprofessionals were able to generalize the classroom instruction to the home base instruction they are expected to deliver to their clients. This ability to generalize is important because paraprofessionals typically work with multiple clients in multiple settings throughout the
FDT 1 week 4 - Essay Example Pena-NietoÃ¢â¬â¢s administration should consider applying border initiative-operation Rio Grande. Rio Grande centralized local, state, county and federal law enforcement intelligence. Similarly, Pena-NietoÃ¢â¬â¢s government should use current available assets including the National Guard under the supervision of Texas Homeland Security Director (Hesterman, 2013, p. 153). There should be viable strategies aimed at enhancing security at the Mexico-Texas border. Sustainable techniques include paying officers overtime to enhance patrols, coordinating state agencies, and sharing information with federal agencies (Hesterman, 2013, p.154). Pena-NietoÃ¢â¬â¢s government should initiate programs that offer ammunition and training to law enforcers and oversight of security agencies operating at the Mexico-Texas border. Currently, Pena-NietoÃ¢â¬â¢s government uses the army to conduct police related activities, in contradiction of provisions outlined under the Posse Comitatus law. Nieto has an established and healthy working condition with bordering countries. The administration employs foreign-based agents to work in coordination with Interpol and other international organizations on drug-related issues (Gaines, 2011, p. 231). Employment of more law enforcement agents is a key success of the administration in addressing challenges of drug cartels along Mexico-Texas
Monday, September 23, 2019
Sustainability within National Parks Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words - 1
Sustainability within National Parks - Essay Example MICE is commonly organised through meetings, exhibitions, conferences, corporate travels and incentive travels among others as a mechanism to generate awareness among the global communities regarding a particular issue. The special events are organised to attract visitors from global contexts, assisting in generating revenue as well, with the intention to support any developmental need towards sustainable development. It is in this context that these special events are identified to be attached with various environmental issues such as polluting air, water and land immensely. Nevertheless, organising MICE has also been criticised on the ground that holding these special events causes excessive use of non-renewable energy, increased transportation and abundant use of other natural resources such as water among others. According to Zamzuri & et. al. (2011), special events have adversely affected the environment due to increased wastes, inappropriate way of waste management, increased t ransportation and unnecessary materials purchasing among others (Pizam, 2012; Zamzuri & et. al., 2011). However, with a much positive perspective, according to Pao (2004), special events, which include conference and corporate meeting among others are organised in various locations with the intention of generating revenue for economic development. These events are identified to develop the tourism sectors; but on the other hand, they are identified as important sources affecting the ecological environment of a country at large causing pollution, traffic congestion and waste among others, within a short span of time as compared to other sources of similar environmental degradation (Anand, 2013; Wood & Brotherton, 2008). These environmental issues, identified from events organised under MICE, are also classified as those factors accountable for increasing social costs and thereby, affecting the environmental equilibrium (Pao, 2004). Green Business Tourism The tourism industry has aime d at developing an effective and eco-friendly environment with the aim of attracting visitors and making a country an attractive location for organising special events (Lau, 2009). According to Lau (2009), there are three main players that are associated with MICE, which include clients, suppliers and other players like government and sponsors among others. The organisers of MICE thus need to held meetings and exhibitions and other intended functions in an appropriate manner with the aim of ensuring that events are executed with better considerations towards the environmental sustainability responsibilities and societal stability. The organiser should also develop and initiate policies as well as measures on the basis of which, meetings and exhibitions should be conducted. Moreover, the organisers should seek that the site where the MICE events are to be organised,
Age of enlightment - Essay Example The second treatise of local government The author in this article conveys that man by nature is free and has no obligation to subject to anybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s will. He neglects the idea of government and the punishment imposed by religious concepts.The author suggests that human being belonging to same species should not be subjected to discrimination and slavery but to equal freedom. Adam smith Ã¢â¬â Wealth of nations The author in this book explains about the feudalism and beurecracy existed during the industrial revolution of Europe. He beloved that feudalism spreading in Europe could hinder the industrial growth and only thing could save it is socialism. He believes that development is due to the specialization of labor and this only can give material well being. He mentions that self love is the reason for prosperity in man which is a nature only found in human beings. He claims that market is a place where individual co -operates with each other and where the talents of individu als are shared for material benefit. His theory says that the value of a thing sold in a market is the proportion of labor put in the making o f it and brought into the market. Comparison of Locke and Adam theory The similarity in both Locke and AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition is that both believe in the human rights of people. They believed in the labor of the human beings and the value attached to it and right attached to it. Both these authors were in support of the laborers and working men. Both the authors talk about the discrimination of government towards the poor and needy. They both talk about property of nature and the law of nature. Locke suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"Adam and Eve, and after them all parents were, by the law of nature, under an obligation to preserve, nourish and educate the children, they had begottenÃ¢â¬ . In a way, both favor socialism and equal distribution of power, property and right to people. They demand that it in natural state, people have the right to do wh at they wanted to and in any case should not be subjected to slavery. Natural liberty was central theme to both of their writing. Locke claims that the government is formed in order to protect the property and Adam smith also talks about labor and property that is wealth of nation. Both the authors believe in a market which works freely and without any discrimination. Smith believed that society functioned in a capitalist way and mostly wants to exploit the laborers and working class. Smith mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"There is no art which one government sooner learns of another than that of draining money from the pockets of the peopleÃ¢â¬ . Smith claims that property is the effort of working class and same is said by Locks that property is labor mixed with an object. Both of them emphasize less on a government who disregard human rights and interests of common men. Contrast between Locke and Smith theory Locke mainly discuss about a community where individuals have free interest and ac quired natural freedom. He mainly focuses on human rights and property .On the other hand Adam Smith focuses on labor and its value and on the division of labor. According to Smith Ã¢â¬Å"In general, if any branch of trade, or any division of labor, be advantageous to the public, the freer and more general the competition, it will always be the more soÃ¢â¬ . Locke mainly mentions about the Government and their abusive way of governing the people. According to Locke Ã¢â¬Å"The legislature acts against the trust reposed in them, when they endeavor to invade the property of the subject, and to make themselves, or any part of the community, masters, or arbitrary disposers of the lives, liberties or fortunes of the peopleÃ¢â¬ He claims that instead of representing the people, government represent
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Domestic Violence and Culture - Coursework Example In our daily lives, the occurrence of situations of domestic violence is often because of the presence of our diverse cultural identities (Freeman, 2008). Despite the fact that domestic violence is universal, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural upbringing is what will influence how the abuse in a domestic relationship will being handled. Traditions and culture provide families, individuals and domestic unions with strength. Our cultural upbringing affects our beliefs, behaviours, values and how we deal situations of conflict in our daily lives. Besides, our religion, ethnic group, economic background and cultural considerations are all the contributing factors that determine how we deal with disagreements in families. Culture influences our principles, traditions, beliefs and guides the way we behave or react. While culture may be the force that strengthen and unite families, it is may also lead to obstacles that prevent couples from amicably resolving domestic issues without resorting to violence. The peer-reviewed article I identified is Ã¢â¬Å"Beyond Behavioural Adjustments: How Determinants of Contemporary Caribbean Masculinities stop Efforts to Eliminate Domestic ViolenceÃ¢â¬ . The journal focused its study on the complexity evident in the Caribbean men behaviour as determined by their social life and culture. The article identified a scenario that is depressing to them that included: unavailability of education opportunities, seasonal unemployment, and the tendency towards abusing females. The above disparities formed a culture that harboured men who perpetrated domestic violence directed to women. What spread are the incidences of violence directed to the female gender was the reason that males felt more masculine and the urge to prove or demonstrate it (Haniff &Hill, 1995). The article identified correctly that the Caribbean had a history of its men asserting their
An EVil Cradling Rape Commentary Essay This passage from Brian Keenans An Evil Cradling describes in first person narrative the scene when Said beats Brian in a manner analogous to a rape. This event gives us an insight into the guards weaknesses and their dependency on the hostages, making them in a paradoxical way- the actual prisoners. On the other hand, Brians and Johns defiance and mutual support suggest the rising determination which gives them control over the guards. Throughout this passage, the author demonstrates us that mental resistance is more powerful than any physical abuse, and Brian even states that the later feeds the first. The narrator claims that There was a part of me they could never bind nor abuse nor take from me. This suggests that physical maltreatment will never be able to reach into peoples minds, because mental strength cannot be bent. Brian also discovers that his resistance was a joyful thing and that the more he was beaten the stronger he became. However, the narrator makes it clear that it was not strength of the arm, nor of body but a huge determination never to give in to these men. This shows that physical exploitation and abuse humiliates their body, but at the same time it empowers intellectual strength and might. The limitations of the beatings are further emphasised in the quotations the blows and the bruises and the kicks hurt me but I felt no pain and I did not fear him. These suggest that the expected effects of the beatings like pain and fear, which could have been used as weapons against the prisoners, were no longer applicable for Brian and John. In this way, the hostages possess the ultimate power, the psychological one which gives them control over the guards making them their slaves. In the course of this passage is suggested that Said is sexually repressed by his religion and so in an attempt to relieve this he beats prisoners in a sexually excited manner. The narrator describes him as a violent lover and his abuse of my body a kind of rape. A lover implies a need for love and possibly sex. However, the guards strict religious views try to inhibit these natural feelings, and as the women in Lebanon are forbidden from having relationships with men before they are married, many men might find themselves in a controversial situation. To shows their masculinity, they turn into violent lovers and try to prove their power by physically subduing others. Brians summary of Said as a man so filled with fear and fascinated by violence and obsessed with sex seems to confirm this point. The guards are fearful and confused because of their repressed emotions that cause them frustration and anger. This explains their sudden changes in behaviour that occur throughout the novel from being caring and innocent into beating and humiliating the prisoners. Said is illustrated by the narrator as a wild and repugnant, almost animal-like person. While beating the prisoners the guard is silent and never talks to them. This implies his savagery, almost as if he lost his ability to speak, which makes him similar to an animal. The fact that he comes by night, shows that he wants to remain hidden from the view this further emphasising his feral inclinations during these moments. Brian gives a detailed account about Saids smell which was a mixture of sweat, strong sweetness and garlic, all of these combining into a violent aroma, which filled the room. These physical portrayals of his scent convey the feeling of disgust and loathing that Brian felt for the duration of this mental rape. The extract I sniffed the air like an animal suggests that something savage and inhuman happened, that Saids assault was beyond the boundaries of a humane deed. On the other hand, we have Brian and John whos humane gestures are highlighted by Saids savage behaviour. Initially Brian claims that he felt an elemental rage and he imagines the pleasure that he would gain from castrating Said. However, after a short while they both laughed together and the moment of violence became meaningless. This suggests that humour gives them sufficient strength to overcome their frustrations and unlike the guards they dont have to turn into violence to relieve their disturbances. After the fierce scene, the two whispered soft words of comfort and reassurance to each other. This emphasises the power of love, friendship, mutual support and provides a more positive and emotional sight after the violent event of the rape. Throughout the novel the hostages and the guards try to overcome their own fears, doubts and frustrations. This passage from the chapter Rape illustrates the ways in which they attempt to do so. Brian and John conquer these negative feelings by supporting, loving and laughing with each other. However, the confined fanatical views of the guards dont allow them to do so, so they seek control and relief by physically abusing others. In spite of this it seems that the psychological defiance of the hostages is a more powerful weapon than the beatings of the guards and so the ones that are somewhat in control in the prison are not the sentry, but the prisoners themselves. In this way, the author nicely concludes that humane and caring behaviour will triumph over brutality and violence.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Concealed Carry Everywhere Essay Since the beginning of our nation after the Declaration of Independence was signed, individuals have had the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Inside these Ã¢â¬ËrightsÃ¢â¬â¢ is the right to bear arms. Is that wrong? Should all people have access to firearms? As stated in the second amendment, we as a nation and individuals have every right to own our own weapons. Therefore, it is your right to either own a weapon or not. There are some who buy a gun, put it in their gun cabinet, and never look at it again for years. Others shoot their guns regularly at ranges, take it to go on a hunting trip, or keep it close to their bed at night if they live in areas with a high crime rate, and these are all practices of using a gun that are considered to be proper uses. On the other hand, there are those who obtain them illegally and use them to harm, murder, rape, or put fear in other citizens. Most states offer a concealed handgun license that you can get when you turn twenty-one by going through the right course in order for you to carry a weapon around legally. The right to bear arms is an important symbol of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s freedoms that our founding fathers established for those who understood the proper and improper uses when you bear arms, and anyone or anything trying to take that away is morally unjust and unconstitutional. If you live in a suburb or rural area surrounding a city you usually do not live in fear of someone trying to rob, hurt, or attack you while you are walking down a street. Yet it is still good to keep a firearm around just in case one of these scenarios occur. If you live in a city with a good amount of people, it is a totally different story. We do not live in the wild west anymore so it would be uncommon to see a man walking down the street strapped up with shotguns and pistols looking like he is going to war. Now that we live in the twenty-first century we have certain laws that require you to get a concealed handgun license. Carrying a concealed weapon doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that someone is planning on using the gun to rob a bank or hold up a gas station, it is just a citizen arming themselves the legal way just in case they need to use it to protect themselves or anyone in danger. Giving citizens the chance to get these licenses shows trust, our individual freedoms, and Ã¢â¬Å"it is part of the reason why we have a lower crime rateÃ¢â¬ (Bush) than we would if we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have citizens with licenses. In highly populated areas across the U. S. there is always going to be a high crime rate due to the amount of people crowded into one area. In every major city there are one or more major college universities. Almost all colleges have a ban on the allowance of guns on campus, and this is partly due to the Students for Gun Free Schools (SGFS). According to statistics pulled from an SGFS essay there is Ã¢â¬Å"an undeniable fact that college causes typically have a lower crime rate than the cities in which they reside. Ã¢â¬ Some people believe that this is all because guns are not allowed on campus, but I believe that this counter argument is not necessarily true. Most of the reasons that crime rates are lower are because it is a college campus, not a city. The crimes that occur there are mostly thefts and assaults, but not murder and rape. This is because at a college campus there are a bunch of young like-minded individuals who would help a person in need if they saw something wrong happening. However, just because you can carry around a weapon does not mean that you should go to a highly populated area such as malls, airports, sport events, bars, clubs, and banks with your weapon. Even professionals whose job it is to teach concealed handgun courses believe that there are certain times you should carry your weapon and times when you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t, for the safety of the general public. By bringing your weapon into a crowded public area you can put every individual in the vicinity in danger. Any situation can turn into mass chaos if shots are fired by a gunman and police because bullets miss their intended targets. Many people believe that since the states adopted the CCW right (concealed carry weapon right) that there has been an increase in killings and violent crime rates. In all actuality the states that allow these rights have seen violent crime and murder rates go down, significantly. Florida is one of 40 states with the Ã¢â¬Å"right-to-carryÃ¢â¬ statutes that give citizens the ability to carry concealed handguns with the proper licenseÃ¢â¬ , and this lets citizens Ã¢â¬Å"stand their ground and fight back when attacked. Ã¢â¬ (Bush). It is funny that George Bush said that because he brings a good topic up. When there is a chance for good citizens to own their own weapons it gives them a chance to stop crime. According to Executive Director Joe Waldron of the Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms (CCRKBA). Ã¢â¬Å"IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it ironic that while Florida, with an armed citizenry, is enjoying a drop in crime, and Washington, D.Ã C. , where citizens are legally disarmed, is experiencing a crime epidemic? Ã¢â¬ (Waldron). This shows how being able to carry a concealed weapon can really be to the benefit of the individual and the community. The concealed carry group is not the ones committing the crimes. A big reason that citizens get these licenses is because theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve heard stories in their communities of theft and break-ins or it is something that their family believes in. They are just trying to protect themselves, their loved ones, friends, and those whom they have never met. This makes them more of a guardian than the supposed wrong doers with guns. This is a fact, most of the gun carriers are just trying to keep the ones around them safe, Ã¢â¬Å"of the 2. 5 million times citizens use their guns to defend themselves every year, the overwhelming majority merely brandish their gun or fire a warning shot to scare off their attackers. Less than 8% of the time, a citizen will kill or wound his/her attacker (Synder). Ã¢â¬ When you are trained in the course they also teach you basic firing and aiming skills. When you are attacked and provoked to the point where you or someone else is in danger, the gun carrier knows different places he or she can shoot someone to only wound them until the authorities arrive. The opportunity to bear arms runs deeper than being able to stop burglars, murderers, and rapists. It is about the idea of being able to save a life. The feeling one person can get when they know they have done the right thing is something that is irreplaceable and something they will never forget. It also gives you a certain confidence or swagger that helps you sleep at night knowing you can protect yourself and others. When you hear news reports, or read articles attacking gun owners saying that Ã¢â¬Å"we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t own gunsÃ¢â¬ think twice about who is writing it and why. These arguments are nothing more than attacks on our basic individual rights. H. L. Mencken said it best when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"The urge to save humanity is almost always a false front for the urge to rule itÃ¢â¬ , and this meaning that things are fine the way they are, and we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t try to change it. If there is a legal way to get a weapon in order to protect the public, then those who are brave enough to take the challenge should be allowed this privilege.
Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Essay This experiment showed that Albert developed a fear of a white rat through associating a neutral stimulus with a fear provoking stimulus. However some individuals may have inherited a high level of physiological reactivity. The extent to which the individual is classically conditioned to a neutral stimulus could be determined by this physiological reactivity. In addition, animal phobia is more likely to become classically conditioned because there is preparedness for survival from the EEA, other stimuli may not become classically conditioned. Davison found phobias of neutral stimuli cannot be easily conditioned as Alberts experiment suggested; he tried to condition phobias of neutral stimuli in a laboratory but had little success. However being in an experimental setting may have prevented the participants from behaving naturally; therefore the fear was not conditioned. The behaviourist concept of stimulus generalising suggest that a fear response to one thing can be generalised to other things, and as predicted by the behavioural concept Albert generalised the phobia of white rats to other furry white objects such as cotton wool, fur and white beards. However his reactivity may predispose him to the anxious disorder. Due to Albert being a child he may have developed his fear of the rat because he was immediately able to recognise the appearance of the animal is least like a human, he feared other objects that were similar to the rat because he developed a cognitive bias unconsciously. Also the research evidence on phobias being a result of traumatic experiences lacks reliability, as shown by Davison it is difficult to replicate Watson and Rayners experiment; although it was found 50% of people suffering from certain phobias recalled a traumatic experience that had triggered their phobia, therefore supporting classical conditioning. The other 50% of phobics that cannot recall an unpleasant experience initiating their phobia could be due to repression of the expression. The development of phobias can also be explained by Mowrers two-process theory, this involves operant conditioning. The first stage of the process involves classical conditioning, for example linking the white rat and the loud noise. The second stage of the theory involves operant conditioning as avoidance of the phobic stimulus reduces the fear response and is thus reinforcing, therefore the fear is maintained and a phobia is developed. Behavioural explanations are reductionist; they oversimplify concepts to one specific thing and ignore other factors. The explanation is also deterministic because it suggests behaviour is controlled by the environment and ignores the individuals own ability to control their behaviour. Social learning theory explains fear as not being intentional, the learning of the fear happens at an unconscious cognitive level. Evidence of modelling was found in monkeys that observed other monkeys displaying a fearful reaction to a snake; these monkeys developed a phobia of snakes because it is a harmful stimulus. Bandura proposed phobias can be learnt through observational learning, modelling and direct reinforcement. There are other psychological explanations of anxious disorders. The cognitive explanation suggests faulty thinking is the cause of phobias. Beck and Emery conceded that anxious people avail cognitive biases, which causes them exaggerate the threats posed by stimuli. This has face validity because phobics have reported high level of anxiety and it is plausible that phobics find their environment a threatening place. Clarks cognitive theory of panic disorder suggests individuals suffering from panic disorder tend to interpret their bodily functions over sensitively i.e. they react to their bodily functions in a life-threatening way. This makes them more anxious and increases their catastrophic thoughts. However it cannot be identified if cognitive biases are the cause of phobias or if the phobias are the cause of the individuals cognitive biases. Also the over consciousness of bodily response could be due to physiological reactivity of the individual and it maybe the underlying cause of the fear. The explanation is description rather than explanatory; it describes the thought patterns of the individual but does not explain why the individual is having these thought patterns. The social explanation is another psychological explanation of anxiety disorders. According to this explanation parental rearing styles have an impact on the development of phobias. It has been found that parental styles that are high in control and overprotection and low in affection are linked to social phobia and agoraphobia. However accounts of parental styles are retrospective. Another limitation is all that has been obtained is correlations between rearing styles and anxiety disorders, correlations do not prove causality. There is evidence that phobics experience more serious life events before the onset of the anxiety disorder, in Kleiner and Marshalls study, 84% of agoraphobics reported to have experienced family problems prior to their first panic attack. Finlay and Brown found a difference between anxious and depressed patients in terms of life events they had experienced in the 12 months prior to the onset of their disorder. Both groups had experienced an above average number of life events, but anxious patients tended to have experienced danger events, whereas depressed patients experienced loss events. However life events may be a factor of variables that developed the disorders. In conclusion the behavioural explanation claims phobias are developed as a result of classical and operant conditioning, this is called the two-process theory. The experiment with Albert demonstrated classical conditioning. However, research indicates that phobias do not depend on having previously encountered a frightening situation, and individuals that have experienced frightening encounters do not necessarily develop a phobia. Social learning theory is a behavioural explanation that may apply to some specific phobias. The cognitive explanation suggests that the individual suffering from the phobia have cognitive biases which cause the individual to exaggerate the threat posed by the stimuli. Some individuals may react to their bodily responses in a catastrophic way more than other individuals because they have a higher physiological reactivity. The social explanation can be used to explain the development of phobias through parental rearing styles and life events. The main problem with obtaining information about parental rearing styles may be the individual perceives the style differently from how it actually was. The main problem with obtaining information on life events is that it was in the past the so remembering them may be distorted and some events may have been forgotten. All three accounts of psychological explanations can be used to describe the development of phobias; however there are other explanations of anxiety disorders that are not psychological such as the evolutionary explanation. According to preparedness argument phobias are adaptive because they are a fear of things that would have been a threat to humans in the EEA. The evolutionary explanation is a counter perspective of the conditioning explanation and may explain why replications of Watson and Rayners experiment failed to condition phobias to neutral stimuli.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Introduction to Theories of International Trade In this concept there are mainly two theories that are classical theory of trade and new trade theory each differentiates from each other with different advantages, assumption and drawbacks. Exchange of goods and services on an international level between two or more countries is stated as international trade. Trade generally takes place between different companies it is of different goods and services. An import is goods and services bought by other country for local use. Example: UK imports gold, telecom equipment from India and export is the process of selling the goods and services which the host country has produced in the country more than sufficient. Example: Tea is exported to UK from India. However, government and individual person often buy and sell products and services internationally resulting international trade. Integration of the world economy is more than ever before. We participate in world/global economy by purchasing or selling goods and services in day to day lif e. Industrial equipments, oil, agricultural products, services like banking transportation, telecommunication, and tourism services are main part of international trade commonly. International transportation and communication cost has been reduced significantly resulting in greater integration between the economies of the world. The interdependence of countries can affect prices, wages, employment, and production in other country; it also affects economic trends and financial condition of each other. For prosperity countries have to work together more closely and rely on each other. Classical Trade theory: Classical theory focused mainly on occurrence of trade. The firms felt need of a separate theory due to fundamental differentiation of internal trade. These theories feature the variation in comparative benefit of manufacturing commodities of 2 countries to the diversity in the manufacturing competence of workers in that particular country it is focused on single value prices. Factor price differences are never considered in this theory. There are several sub theories in this particular concept which is explained as followed. (Sinha, n.d.) Absolute advantage Theory of trades (Adam smith, 1776): In the 2nd part of the 18th economic progress got complicated due to mercantilism policies. In the book The Wealth of Nations published in 1776 author Adam Smith stated that mercantilism theory favors the producers and reduces the interest of the consumers. Adam smith says in his theory that exports are profitable but countries should also import goods and services to satisfy better requirements of consumers instead of making them here in internal market. As we can see in the figure 1, country 1 has absolute advantage in good A production/resources and country 2 has absolute advantage in good B production/resources so country 1 should export good A to country 2 and import good B from country 2 vise versa. (Anon, n.d.) Figure 1: Absolute Advantage (Absolute Advantage n.d.) Assumptions of absolute advantage theory: Trade between two countries for two commodities: If we take three or more countries it does not help analytically for absolute advantage theory. Efficiency of the product: Countrys goal is not always efficiency comparing at the level of the world it is not easy to produce efficient product every time. Zero transportations cost: Transportation cost is not considered in absolute advantage theory. Factor mobility/immobility: Theory presumes that all the resources are mobile in the country and immobile between two or more countries. Total employment: Theory considers that every country has full employment in the whole country. (Anon, n.d.) Comparative advantage Theory (David Ricardo, 1817): This theory of David Ricardo states that both the countries involved in trade can gain a lot even if one of the countries is producing less than all goods and services that produced by other country. As can be seen in the graph below country B is producing more than country A in both the goods that is produced in both countries. Both the counties should specialize in what there is low opportunity cost is required. (Anon 1, n.d.) Figure 2: Comparative Advantage (Comparative Advantage n.d.) No or low transportation cost: consideration of the transportation cost is not even taken in this theory also. No negative externalities: theory does not say about externalities affecting trade, and it also does not take into consideration that there could be negative externalities for more production. (Anon 2, n.d.) There are no economies of scale: Due to different policies of government for particular country it becomes hard to trade freely and affects the total production and eventually affecting to the scale of economy. (Anon 3, 2008) Mercantilism Theory (16th century): Mercantilism theory is a thinking of 16th century. Major trading nations were thinking that if we increase our exports internationally we will gain power, wealth and also the precious metals like gold and silver in return. The theory says that in total world there was only fixed wealth which will increase our countries wealth resulting in becoming powerful country through either importing or exporting the goods in high quality but in lower cost. Earlier days transactions was use to take place in the form of either in gold or in silver coins which created trend of exporting more and importing less is called as mercantilism. (Anon1, n.d.) Mercantilism is time bounded; it is short term because after some period of time resources will be over due to large no of use of the raw material. Then countries will have to import the same good to their own country. Certain goods should be imported by any country to avoid later effect of scarcity for any goods and services. (Anon 4, 2008) Factor Endowments Theory (Heckscher in 1919, Ohlin in 1933): In this theory both Swedish economists Heckscher and Ohlin have different view/explanation about comparative advantage. They both think that comparative advantage comes from difference in national factor endowments. Factor endowments means the scope of the country is endowed with resources like land, labor, and capital, workforce, and infrastructure. Different countries have different factors endowed, and different factor endowments explain differences in factor costs. To lower the cost the factor should be more profuse. This theory proposes that the nations would export those goods that makes demanding use of those factors that are locally more in numbers, and should import those goods those have scarcity locally. (Aswathappa, 2010) New trade theory: This theory endeavor to comprehend and give details of the global trade affect the diversity of goods accessible to consumer around the world, these theories also describe concentration of market structure. Analysis of Trade: The testimony brings the awareness that the trade between India and U.K has historical trade relations. Indias exports to U.K was beneficial to both countries as U.K use to import raw material and make it into finished goods and again export those products to other countries. According to the survey it is observed that India had good revenue when the exports were high to U.K but as India moved towards diversification the exports of the country started declining since the year 2000. Both countries are the top investors in the economies of each others economies, this enables long term benefits to both countries. (Anon 5, 2012) Exports of India: The current situation of Indias exports shows positive sign on the trade i.e. exports of the country was worth 23698 million USD. In the GDP 22% of exports is been contributed, out of which jewelry constitutes 16% of contribution in exports. Mainly India exports to U.S, European Union, China Arab Emirates. (Tradingeconomics 1, 2012) Exports of U.K: The current market situation of U.K according to the records is 40. 5 Billion GBP in September 2012. This country is considered as fifth largest nation. The main export of U.K is telecommunication equipment, aircrafts, automatic data processing equipment etc. U.K mainly exports goods and services to Ireland, USA, France and Germany. (Tradingeconomics 2, 2012) Positive impacts of International trade on India and U.K: The growth of India rose above 6% after the year 2000. Overall employment also increased from 1% to about 3% which is beneficial to the economy. Liberalization of trade policies enabled to bring efficiency in several terms. Improved standard of living of the country. (Sankaran, Abraham, and Joseph, n.d.) Increase in possible growth of the business. Expand market share globally. Enables steady variation of market.(Economywatch, 2010) Protectionism of trade theory: This concept came into existence in order to protect the interest of the country who is involved in international trade. Here government protects the firms from exploitation of other countries. Typical method of protectionism is direct state intervention, subsidies, tax cuts to local business, quotas and tariffs. These are main types of protectionism method used by the government. Merits of protectionism: Protectionism of international trade helps protecting the local organization and employment. With help of reduction in imports economical aggregate demand will increase. Country can develop some laws to avoid dumping. Foreign companies bring their products and sell them in lowest price than the production cost. Protectionism helps in developing new domestic firm to grow faster blocking the foreign company to develop locally. (Gulrajani, 2009) Demerits of protectionism: Innovation and improvement will become weak as there will not be much of competition due to protectionism. Dismissal and burnout will be the ultimate result of protectionism. Lower or bad quality might dissatisfy the customers because of long term protectionism. Redundancy can become serious issue due to less innovation or improvement. Protectionism affects the countries economy and also the world economy. Many countries are now avoiding protectionism ad they are favoring more of free trade agreements. (Anon 8, n.d.) Analysis of Comparative Advantage: At a lower opportunity cost when a country produces goods and services when compared with other country that particular country is said to have comparative advantage. (Economicshelp, n.d.) Comparative advantage of India: India has huge population therefore this particular country has good labor and so it is specialized in labor intensive product. This capability differentiates themselves from other countries, and makes maximum use of it in order to make maximum profits which would add to host countries economy. (Tradingeconomics 3, 2012) Comparative advantage of U.K: U.K is vast country therefore they are specialized in several goods but mainly the comparative advantage of this country is manufactured goods i.e. is pharmaceutical products, telecommunication product etc. the quality provided by this country for these country makes product outstanding also the technologies use to manufacture these product ensure efficiency in goods that exported. (Economicsonline, n.d.) Criticism to Comparative advantage: Even if the countries do not have clear comparative advantage, they aim to take risk by broadening there horizons for goods and services. The assumption of two country and two goods is incorrect as the real world is too complex by exporting and importing different services and goods. This concept is not constant i.e. it can change over a period of time. In this concept exchange rates and relative prices are not taken into consideration. Structural unemployment is possible if there is complete specialization as there are some cases where workers cannot transfer from one sector to another. Without any diminishing return this concept is perfectly mobile. (Economicsonline, n.d.) Conclusion: International trade and investment is constituted by economic relation. This irregularity is embedded in a situation where prosperous countries are impatient to stipulate free trade for others but are hesitant to compel it on themselves and are capable to evade doing so. The current market of international trade promotes growth and aims to reduce poverty. Different theories have different assumptions but the modern theory is considered to be more effective then the other as it focuses on both i.e. exports as well imports. The protectionism concept is effectively being used by the countries in order to avoid exploitation and also ensures smooth going in trade.
An Analysis Of The World Film Industry Economics Essay In this research project, the target audience should to be the people working in the film industry. The results might be better validated through consultation with his target group, however, obtaining this data, e.g. via a survey, is problematic, as it is hard to predict the return rates. For this reason, this primary research could not be done. Nevertheless, secondary research will be adapted in this project, and this chapter will still contain the data from some scholars in order to provide some evidence in answer to the research question. It will also contain some data and results from EcoWin. EcoWin is a web-based database that collates a wide variety of financial and economic time series from over 100 different countries. Moreover, the economic concepts used in this project will be the multiplier effects. This is because the multiplier effect is a method by which job opportunities and wealth are created by attracting new industry to an area. It is used to explain the relationships between an industry and the related creation of wealth in the area. It could increase the amount of industries in the area, which would create more jobs and hence wealth and the overall image of an area. 3.1 The Multiplier Effect The multiplier effect can be seen in most industries, and can illustrate the improvement and development of an industry. The multiplier will meet its greatest impact where idle resources exist. The following model (diagram 1) is an example of this theory. It shows how the film industry could affect the economy. Although the film industry has been established in a particular country, it will need to decide whether the film will shoot locally or overseas. Each step will lead to different consequences. For instance, where the film industry decides to shoot a film overseas, it may induce jobs to that country, which will help the country to improve their technology and cultural. Furthermore, this will help them to attract more companies from overseas to invest in their country. This may successfully raise some of the countrys GDP. As seen in Appendix 1, information from the UK council, it was stated that the multiplier effect had helped the UK gain Ã £425 million in tax revenue and had c ontributed Ã £1.6 billion to their GDP per year. This shows the significance of the multiplier effect to the economy. Diagram 1 Example of the Multiplier Effect in the Film Industry. Chapter 4. Data Analysis and Results The factors that might affect the economy are categorised as employment, tourism, technology and culture. Taking a film festival or shooting a film as an example, we can compare the unemployment rate during the hosting of the festival and during any other time. This is because the employment rate might only affect the countrys economy within a short period of time. In addition, the tourism, culture and technology elements spillover to the film industry might also affect the local or national economy. India, Korea and Hong Kong are all examples of developing countries that are showing good performance in their film industry. This chapter will compare the results from selected developing countries (India, Hong-Kong) and developed countries (UK, US), to see if there are any similarities and differences between them and why. This chapter will also try to investigate only one film Blood Diamond, released at the end of 2006, because the ranges of the film industry are too big. This film was produced in America but shot in South Africa, so it is a good example for this project to investigate. Furthermore, we will compare the tourism rate before and after the release of the film to see whether there were any affects to the economy. It might be easy for people to find out whether are there any relationship between film industry and the economy. Also, by finding some data of labour income and referring to the multiplier effect (diagram 1), we will draw a timeline of the film industry to see the threshold and investigate and analyse all the process the between developed and developing countries. The result may able to show whether the development of a film industry will help to increase the LDCs economy. 4.1 Developing countries (Hong Kong India) VS Developed Country (US) To find out whether the film industry could help and improve the LDCs economy, we will compare the growth of the film industry in developing countries and a developed country. 4.1.1Hong-Kong India Hong-Kong and India are both developing countries that are performing well in their film industries. Hong-Kongs film production reached its highest levels during the 50s and 60s. However, after the world war, the education of the new generations became more Occidentalising; one of the reasons for this is because traditional Hong-Kong films were not able to meet the audiences taste. Bringing in US films, also bring in their culture and technology. For example, the performed of the new 3D technology from the US in 2009, it had helped to increase the revenue for Hong Kongs film industry. From a report of US Commercial Service (2010), said that the new 3D technology has helped grow Hong-Kongs box office, it had gain US$151.9 million in 2009 which had grown 6.5 percent from 2008. It shows the affect of the USs film industry to the Hong-Kong economy. Moreover, from the Financial Express (2002), it had stated that the India film industry could contribute around RS 50000 crore to their GDP. Bhushan (2010) had also stated that the film industry had contributed $1.5 billion to the Indian economy from 2008-2009. The Website Indiancinema.com (2008) has stated that filmmaking in India may be the best among all developing countries because other countries are more sophisticated in their technologies. Moreover, it also provided evidenceÃ Ã that the development of the film industry will support the economy. 4.1.2 US UK Nowadays, the US film industry could be considered the most successful, as it has produced such a high number of famous films. Also, the US film industry might have a higher budget for shooting films, because their financial resources are much more abundant compared to others. However, the US film industry was not like this at the beginning, and has undergone a number of development processes. The following shows the impact from film industry to UKs GDP in 2009; it had reinforced the fact that the film industry could affect the economy. Table 1 Summery of Economic contribution of UK film industry 2009. (Source: Oxford Economics) 4.3 Tourism: The inducement of tourism is one of the important factors that the government should pay attention to. Tourism might increase in other countries because of the publics attraction to the films or stars; it will create an incentive for the local economy. For example, the rise of tourism will also cause a rise in production, which may in turn raise the local economy. 4.3.1 South Africa Many scholars have agreed that the film industry might affect the economy by drawing in tourists attracted by the film. Figure 1 shows the total arrivals and departures of foreigners in South Africa. Both the arrivals and departures rates are increasing each year, showing successful development. In early 1986, both rates increased at a slow tempo until 1990, after which they both had a sharp increase. During 1995 and 1997, both rates are growing unstably, showing slight fluctuation. Mongabay (2009) stated that Africas economy had been shaped over many centuries, and started getting better in 1994 because of their new government policies, which also improved the health of their economy and saw a growth in their GDPÃ Ã . Figure 1 South Africa: Total Arrivals/Departures of Foreigners. (Source: EcoWin) 4.3.2 America: 4.4 Labor Market: Employment/Unemployment The employment rate might only be significant in the developed world, with no reverent correlation in the third world. Refer to the Multiplier effect (Diagram 2), the exits of film industry will provide jobs for the local, and will induced jobs overseas in short run. The example of a US film Blood Diamond shows that, although the film industry will induce jobs to South Africa this will only apply while the film is shooting. This only shows a small effect on the local economy, unlike the countries that have built their own film studios, like the US, and who will be available to provide long-term employment opportunities. Figure 2 US: Full/Part time/Total Employment. (Source: EcoWin) It is important to note that the national employment rate is not affected by the film industry; however, it will affect the local employment rate temporarily. This is because the employment rate will only be affected while the film is shooting, unless the country builds a film studio in order to apply long-term employment. In other words, the film industry will only have a certain amount of effect in the national labor market. 4.4.1: South Africa: As the film industry may bring in some job opportunities for local people, Figure 5 shows the comparison of total employment and unemployment from 2001 to 2009, while Figure 6 shows the unemployment rate in South Africa. Table 3 in Appendix 3 shows that while the unemployment rate in South Africa in 2006 is at its lowest, the employment also starts to rise. Figure 3 South Africa: Total Employment/Unemployment. (Source: EcoWin) Figure 4 South Africa: Unemployment Rate. (Source: EcoWin) The film industry will be able to affect the employment rate locally in the short run; however, it will be impacting the income rate of the local people in the longer term. As Figure 7 shows below, the income rate is increasing each year; it started to grow faster in 1985, and rose sharply from 2000 to 2006. Relate this to Table 5 in Appendix 3, the income in 2004 is 141167, 156270 in 2005, rising to 193678.5 in 2006. It had increased by 37408.5 from 2005 to 2006, a sharp rise. Part of the reason for this might be that the film Blood Diamond was shooting during this period. It affected the local income gradually. Figure 5 South Africa: Labour Income. (Source: EcoWin) 4.5 Cultural; Culture will show the characteristic of a country and could represent a country in some cases. In the film industry, each country will have different interests in the type of film they produce. For instance, Indian movies will be more likely to contain song and dance but in the US they prefer more a more hi-tech approach. As the song and dance in the movie are already become a feature to Indian film, this is why people had called the Hindi cinema as BollywoodÃ Ã . Nowadays, people will recognise Bollywood as producing Indian films and Hollywood as producing American films; this could show the affect of culture. Sometime, the living habits of a country will be reflected in the movie. 4.6 Technology: The improvement of technology will affect the production of the economy and will have the power to affect the national economy as well. Where filmmakers shoot films in other countries, they might bring in some new technology. Or technology will be improved through communicating and competing with other countries. For example AvatarÃ Ã in 3D was a novelty to many people around the world and attracted a wide audience, which resulted in high box office profits. US Commercial Service (2010), it has stated that gross revenue of Hong Kongs film industry is expected to expand in the coming years because of the opening of new multiplexes and 3D cinemas, and strong government support If this film had been released in some LDCs, it would have created an awareness and interest of some new technologies amongst the locals, who may not have seen this kind of high technique film before. It would enable let the LDCs to gain knowledge and information by the inducement of technology, or they may decide to use the same techniques used in the film in their own productions. Furthermore, the exchange of technologies between countries will cause a technology spillover. 4.7 Government Policy: Tax With regards to a government helping the film industry through tax relief, Wallack (2008) quoted a report by Massachusetts Film Office showing that when Walt Disney Pictures spent $50 million filming in Massachusetts in 2006, the company received nearly $10 million in credits from the state. The action of the government can affect the growth of the film industry, as shown in the example of tax relief. Moreover, it will be able to encourage local production. The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 included, amongst a myriad of other business tax breaks, a measure to benefit small movie production by allowing full write-off of production costs up to US$15m, at a presumed cost of US$336m. On the other hand, in the early 70s there were loopholes in the US tax system, which caused shooting to exceed budget, which had a negative effect on the economy. Chapter 5. Conclusion Production, consumption and distribution are important in the film industry; these may affect the profits that the country may earn. For instance, if a countrys production levels are high, it may increase their employment rates and distribution and may raise the reputation of the country, which might then increase investment from other countries. Every country will have to face developmental stages, which shows the improvement of each sector in the country. Take the film industry as an example: not every country had cinemas from the very beginning but each started to develop as time went on. The development of the film industry might affect the economy because as people had more social time than working time in the past, they would tend to spend their time watching shows or performances. The increase of globalisation has made the film industry an international commodity. The success of the film industry in Hollywood has always been an objective for most of the countries. However, Rod (1998) argued that there is evidence that the US is losing the comparative advantage in the international media market. This is because of the rise in competition; nowadays most countries have their own productions in the film industry. But most of the film industries in the world were impacted by American filmmaking because it used the highest technology in this field during the films Golden Age . 5.1 Implications of the Study: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the film industry could affect a local economy. If it is a successful pathway, this sector could alert LDC governments to pay more attention to this. 5.2 Limitations of the Research: Not many scholars are focusing on the development of the film industry in a country. There is little data on this, therefore, which will impact the accuracy of this project. Moreover, problems relating to the primary research survey might affect the final result. 5.3 Recommendations for Further Research: The film industry might be one of the sectors that the government should try to pay attention to. While it may not result in large increases to an economy, there are still benefits to be gained. Because of the word limit that applies to this project, it is not possible to cover in detail every question relating to this topic. Further research should firstly focus on whether the film could impact the income in developed countries, if yes, it may be a useful resource for LDCs. Secondly, is the level of development is important in determining, if film is going to affect the national consciousness. In addition, investigation should be made into the measures that could be uses to answer the questions of impact.
Assignment 2: Internal Environmental Scan/Organizational Assessment This section provides the opportunity to develop your course projec...
Sustainability within National Parks Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words - 1Sustainability within National Parks - Essay Example MICE is commonly organised through meetings, exhibitions, conferences, corporate tra...
'This I weighI study on that point is nought to learn, al atomic number 53 to debunk what I already come. I intend that as ...
"This dead preciselycher and his fiend like queen", is the manner in which Malcolm describes Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. De...