Friday, November 29, 2019
Intel A Corporation "A corporation is a business that, although owned by one or more investors, legally has the rights and duties of an individual. Corporations have the right to buy, sell, and own property. Corporations may make legal contracts, hire and fire workers, set prices, and be sued, fined, and taxed. A business must obtain a charter of incorporation from a state legislature or Congress to be legally recognized as a corporation."(Watson, p211) While corporations didn't exist until the mid to late 1800s, the idea of the corporation had existed since the early 1600s. It all started with English merchants who started trading companies to help fund the early colonies. If the colonies thrived, the stockholders reaped in the profit. (Watson, p211) A corporation is started when a sole proprietorship, a one-owner business, that is the most common form of business institution in the US, or a partnership, an association of two or more people in order to run a business, decides that they don't want to be personally responsible for any loss the company might have. (Watson, p211) Or they might decide that they want the company to "live on" after they die, that is for the business to have "unlimited life". Since neither of these goals can be reached with a sole proprietorship, or a partnership, the owner (or owners, as the case may be) decide that he (they) want to "convert" their business to a corporation. The owner(s) file a charter of incorporation from the government to be legally recognized as a corporation. (Boyd, March, 99) The owner(s) then sell shares of stock, documents representing ownership in the corporation, to investors. These investors buy and sell the stock to small investors, or stockholders. Since there is no limit to the number of shareholders to a company, the investors vote (for every share you own you get one vote) on a board of directors. The board of directors are in charge of hiring the people responsible for the every-day running of the corporation. These positions include, but are not limited to: the president, vice president, and other chief administrators. (Watson, p211-212) If a corporation reaps a profit, investors may receive a dividend, or a share of the monetary gain made by the company. The elected board of directors choose whether the money will go towards profit, expansion of the company, modernization of the company, or research and development. (Watson, p212) "With about 85% of the microprocessor market, Intel is definitely inside. Its microprocessors -- including the Pentium -- have been providing brains for IBM-compatible PCs 1981."(http://thestandard.net?.) Intel started on July 16, 1968 when magnetic core memory was the leading technology at the time. They were trying to make semi-conductor memory practical with silicon memory. Unfortunately for Intel semi-conductor memory cost 100 times more than magnetic core memory, but the silicon had many advantages - smaller size, greater performance, and reduced energy consumption. Then, in late 1968,the Japanese company Busicom asked Intel to produce a series of chips (twelve chips for every unit) for a group of programmable calculators that they were producing. Normally, chips were made specifically for each product. Well, the designers at Intel decided that they would make a general purpose logical chip to replace all of the many different varieties of chips that would go into the different electronics. The logical chip was a major success; the only problem was that Busicom had the rights to the chip. Realizing that this chip could have a major impact on society, the founders Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore praised the new chip, while people in the corporation still wanted to stick with producing memory. Intel bought the rights to the chip from the struggling Japanese company for $60,000, and this "paved the way for Intel's developing vision of ubiquitous (universal) microprocessor-based computing."(?/cn71898a.htm). The 4004 microprocessor set was introduced near the end of 1971. "Smaller than a thumbnail and packing 2300 transistors, the $200 chip delivered as much computing power as the first electronic computer, ENIAC. By comparison, ENIAC relied on 18,000 vacuum tubes packed into 3,000 cubic feet when it was built in 1946. The 4004 executed 60,000 operations in one second, primitive by today's standards, but a major breakthrough at the
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The Essentials of Timber and Tree Marking Symbols Timber marking symbols using paint and other tree scribing methods are not universally accepted in North American forests. There is no national code that mandates the use of painted slashes, dots, circles and Xs. There is no color used as a code that is more than a regional preference and usually accepted only locally. Even the United States Forest Service uses different marks and colors depending on the national forest and/or national forest region. However, there are many reasons to mark trees and forest timber. Trees may be marked to indicate a tree to be cut or left as per the forest management plan. Trees on forest boundary lines can be marked to indicate property ownership. Trees inside large forests can be permanently marked as part of a forest inventory system. Forest Tree Marking Meanings There are no national tree marking standards even if many of them are similar. Forestry organizations have tried for years to set a few guidelines for tree and timber marks. But foresters are an independent breed and many see their tree marking designs and system as their personal or company imprint or brand. Circles, number of slashes and other quick paint spurts, including stump marks, usually signifies cutting status along with the quality or grade of the tree marked. Boundary line colors often designate land belonging to a particular owner and usually painted over some removed bark (scars) to last longer. Marks Used in Selecting a Tree to Cut Selecting trees to cut is the most common mark made, often done using paint. Unmarked trees that are left usually have the best potential to make the most productive future second crop. The paint color is usually blue on trees to be cut and the trees intended product is identified by different paint slashes and symbols. Again, you are actually selecting the best trees with potential value by not marking them. There is a system described in the Wisconsin DNR Silviculture Handbook on trees to be marked that ensure the production of high-quality sawtimber products. The selection of trees to cut should apply the following order of removal to achieve the desired residual stand composition and structure. Nel-spot Paint Company manufactures the most popular paints used by the forest industry and their very popular blue is the most often used paint used to denote a tree to be used. 6 Reasons to Mark a Tree for Removal High risk of mortality or failure (unless retained as a wildlife tree)Poor stem form and qualityLess desirable speciesRelease of future crop treesLow crown vigorImprove spacing This order of removal will vary with landowner goals, the stand management plan, and silvicultural treatment. Examples would be a shelterwood seed cut that would open the forest floor to tree regeneration or the permanent removal of exotic invasive species. Removal of undesirable species would preserve the quality of an expected new stand. Marks Used for Boundary Lines Maintaining forest boundary lines is one major duty of the forest manager and tree marking is a part of that. Most forest landowners generally know where their boundary lines are and have accurately surveyed maps and photography but very few have their lines marked clearly on the ground. A clearly marked boundary is the best evidence that you know where your landlines are. Marked boundaries minimize the risk of problems, such as timber trespass, caused by others making inaccurate assumptions about your boundaries. They also help you avoid trespassing on your neighborsÃ¢â¬â¢ land when you cut trees or build roads and trails. Colored plastic ribbon or Ã¢â¬Å"flaggingÃ¢â¬ is often used as a temporary location of boundary lines but should be followed by more permanent blazing and/or painting trees along and near the line. Make sure you are using the latest recorded survey. 5 Steps to Mark Your Forest Boundary Contacting your boundary neighbor is courtesy at its best as new line claims can cause disagreements.An axed blaze 5-6Ã¢â¬ long and 3-4Ã¢â¬ wide at 4 to 5 feet above the ground should be made. Limit the cut to just enough bark and outer wood to make it visible.Ã Avoid blazing over old blazes as they become supporting evidence of the original location of the line.Paint both the blazed surface including 1-2Ã¢â¬ of bark (to over-paint forming callous tissue).Ã Use a bright (fluorescent blue, red, or orange seem to work best) durable brush-on paint. Nel-spot makes great boundary paint.Many timber company forest owners blaze side trees on the line side it faces. This exactness can be helpful but takes a recent survey line for exactness.Mark trees close enough so that from any mark you can see the next mark in either direction.
Monday, November 25, 2019
5 New Years Resolutions Mark Zuckerberg Made That Can Inspire You By any stretch, Mark Zuckerberg is one successful guy. He has more money than most of us can even conceive of, he spends a lot of that money and time on philanthropic efforts, and- oh yeah- he runs the biggest social networking company in the world. Yet even from his vantage point at the top of the world, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s room for self-improvement. Zuckerberg has made some strong New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolutions in the past. And although they may be a little extreme for someone with more modest means and less time available, we can learn a lot from his approach.Here are some of his past yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ resolutions (or Ã¢â¬Å"challengesÃ¢â¬ ), and what we can take from them.1. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to speak Mandarin.Ã¢â¬ Becoming fluent in a challenging language may not be super-accessible to someone juggling a job, a family, and daily obligations without a full-time language tutor. But you can certainly find time to learn a new skill this year.2. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing a thank you note each day to so meone who made the world better.Ã¢â¬ If you have time to write a flowery thank you note to Gandhi or Elvis every day this year, great. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t, just saying Ã¢â¬Å"thank youÃ¢â¬ to someone each day is great, too. You could make a coworkerÃ¢â¬â¢s day by thanking him for something that might ordinarily go unnoticed. Being thankful for the smaller things (even when bigger things are going wrong) might also help you feel less stressed at work.3. Ã¢â¬Å"Being a vegetarian (or only eating meat if I killed the animal myself).Ã¢â¬ Again, this one could be a very large commitment, depending on how much you love bacon. But really, it could be any healthy habit that makes you more mindful. Maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s 10Ã minutes of yoga at lunch. Maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to a spin class after work to decompress. This one could also be about self-accountability and embracing the choices you make in the workplace, instead of looking for the nearest coworker to throw under the bus.4. Ã ¢â¬Å"Wearing a tie every day.Ã¢â¬ When I saw this one, I thought of the old adage, Ã¢â¬Å"dress for the job you want.Ã¢â¬ Even as society and workplaces have gotten more casual, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s some merit in this one. Taking an extra step to look good for work can make you feel sharper and more ready for the day.5. Ã¢â¬Å"Meeting one new person who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work at Facebook every day.Ã¢â¬ This challenge is about building your network, social and professional. Getting out there and making connections is one of the best things you can do to make your year brighter. Best case, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve created relationships that could take your career to the next level. Worst case, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve widened your world a little bit.So what do you think? Are you up for these challenges, or ones like them?This article is part of Bulk Up Your Career in 2017Ã campaign. Access the entire guide here to help you succeed in 2017.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Water Intoxication and Hyponatremia Youve probably heard that its important to drink plenty of fluids or simply drink lots of water. There are excellent reasons for drinking water, but have you ever wondered if its possible to drink too much water. Heres what you need to know: Key Takeaways: Drinking Too Much Water It is possible to drink too much water. Overhydration leads to water intoxication and hyponatremia.The problem isnt really about the amount of water, but how ingesting too much water upsets the electrolyte balance in blood and tissues.Drinking too much water is uncommon. If you stop drinking water when you no longer feel thirst, there is no risk of water intoxication.Hyponatremia most often occurs when babies are given water instead of formula or formula that has been mixed with too much water. Can You Really Drink Too Much Water? In a word, yes. Drinking too much water can lead to a condition known as water intoxication and to a related problem resulting from the dilution of sodium in the body, hyponatremia. Water intoxication is most commonly seen in infants under six months of age and sometimes in athletes. A baby can get water intoxication as a result of drinking several bottles of water a day or from drinking infant formula that has been diluted too much. Athletes can also suffer from water intoxication. Athletes sweat heavily, losing both water and electrolytes. Water intoxication and hyponatremia result when a dehydrated person drinks too much water without the accompanying electrolytes. What Happens During Water Intoxication? When too much water enters the bodys cells, the tissues swell with the excess fluid. Your cells maintain a specific concentration gradient, so excess water outside the cells (the serum) draws sodium from within the cells out into the serum in an attempt to re-establish the necessary concentration. As more water accumulates, the serum sodium concentration drops - a condition known as hyponatremia. The other way cells try to regain the electrolyte balance is for water outside the cells to rush into the cells via osmosis. The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from higher to lower concentration is called osmosis. Although electrolytes are more concentrated inside the cells than outside, the water outside the cells is more concentrated or less diluted, since it contains fewer electrolytes. Both electrolytes and water move across the cell membrane in an effort to balance concentration. Theoretically, cells could swell to the point of bursting. From the cells point of view, water intoxication produces the same effects as would result from drowning in fresh water. Electrolyte imbalance and tissue swelling can cause an irregular heartbeat, allow fluid to enter the lungs, and may cause fluttering eyelids. Swelling puts pressure on the brain and nerves, which can cause behaviors resembling alcohol intoxication. Swelling of brain tissues can cause seizures, coma and ultimately death unless water intake is restricted and a hypertonic saline (salt) solution is administered. If treatment is given before tissue swelling causes too much cellular damage, then a complete recovery can be expected within a few days. Its Not How Much You Drink, Its How Fast You Drink It! The kidneys of a healthy adult can process 15Ã liters of water a day! You are unlikely to suffer from water intoxication, even if you drink a lot of water, as long as you drink over time as opposed to imbibing an enormous volume at one time. As a general guideline, most adults need about three quarts of fluid each day. Much of that water comes from food, so 8-12 eight-ounce glasses a day is a commonly recommended intake. You may need more water if the weather is very warm or very dry, if you are exercising, or if you are taking certain medications. The bottom line is this: its possible to drink too much water, but unless you are running a marathon or are an infant, water intoxication is a very uncommon condition. Can You Drink Too Much If Youre Thirsty? No. If you stop drinking water when you stop feeling thirsty, you are not at risk for overdosing on water or developing hyponatremia. There is a slight delay between drinking enough water and not feeling thirsty anymore, so its possible to overhydrate yourself. If this happens, youll either vomit the extra water or else need to urinate. Even though you might drink a lot of water after being out in the sun or exercising, its generally fine to drink as much water as you want. The exceptions to this would be babies and athletes. Babies should not drink diluted formula or water. Athletes can avoid water intoxication by drinking water that contains electrolytes (e.g., sports drinks).
Friday, November 22, 2019
Communication Organisations and Technologies - Essay Example Both of these management strategies focus on the needs or motivations of employees, but each has their own benefits and potential disadvantages. Human relations often deal with the specific environmental (physical) conditions of the organisation that tend to boost productivity levels. The Illumination Studies, studies that involved the correct level of illumination in the workplace, tended to show that productivity remained the same regardless of how lighting was increased or decreased in the organisation (Miller, 2008). Further studies showed that in the presence of other factors related to the worker, such as pay incentives, specific work hours assigned to each employee and even the social environment boosted productivity when paired with environmental issues such as lighting (Miller). In order to best describe the human relations approach to managing people, it involves understanding that people want to be included as a part of a team environment and also given the physical conditions that make the job rewarding and worthwhile. providing better bonuses for meeting corporate goals or providing additional compensation through the performance appraisal so that employees realise they are respected and valued contributors to the organisation. Motivating employee loyalty and giving them personalised incentives for meeting more than just job role responsibilities are factors that are modelled into the human relations approach. Ã¢â¬Å"The accountability to which organisations increasingly have to respond can be adequately met only by making an appeal to the responsibility of individual employees. The organisation depends on their loyaltyÃ¢â¬ (Vandekerckhove and Commers, 2004, p.226). What this means for management is that in order for the business to be successful to all different stakeholders, it must depend on the personal actions and loyalties of employees to reach
Thursday, November 21, 2019
2 questions - Assignment Example For Example, if we multiply two numbers a^5 and a^3, then we add powers of both number as bases are same and the product will be Quotient Rule: When dividing with exponential notation with the same bases (non-zero), we subtract the exponent of the denominator from the exponent of the numerator. For Example, dividing a^5 by a^3, we subtract 3 from 5, as bases are same and the division will be When rewriting an exponential expression with a negative exponent and a positive base to an expression containing only a positive exponent, does the sign of the base change? Demonstrate with an example. No, when rewriting an exponential expression with a negative exponent and a positive base to an expression containing only a positive exponent, the sign of the base does not change. In case of a negative exponent, x to the power of a negative number is one divided by x to the power of that positive number. For example, a^(-2) will be equal to
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Changing Climates - Essay Example This increase has been caused by an increase in the greenhouse gases as humans continue to burn more fossil fuel. The other impact is an increase in the number of asthma related cases especially for the younger generations. The main reason behind this is the smog that results from emission of carbon dioxide gases. With respect to the State of Maine, the most probable impact that would affect the people living in this region is rise in ocean water. Since this nation is in close proximity to the sea, an increase in its level would have devastating effects both to the people and to the economic performance of the nation. Additionally, being an industrialized nation, the people living in Maine could be at a higher risk of experiencing increased asthma cases. This is because the developed countries have high levels of carbon dioxide emissions, which are in turn responsible for creation of smog that causes an increase in the number of asthma cases in
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Learning Theory Paper - Assignment Example He focused on how some adults were self-directed in their learning and others were not. He found that 70% of adult learners were self-directed and they did not rely on academic learning as the way that they learned (Tough, 2002). Tough was interesting in examining why there were differences and he wanted to add information about why adult learners felt compelled to improve themselves with or without formal learning (Tough, 2002). The information that Tough presented provided more information on how to assist the adult learner beyond what had been provided in the past. Tough realized that adults were learning in many different ways and they were often discovering learning in nontraditional ways. Adults were learning all the time and it was a part of their everyday life. He found that most adults did not value this outside learning, because they associated learning with formal education (Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007). In a survey that was done by Patrick Penland, a library school professor, it was found that adult learners were primarily interested in professional development, information that would enhance their family, and those things that would help them move forward in their jobs (Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007; Tough, 2002). Tough categorized learning into several episodes and asked adult learners to report on projects that were about seven hours (Tough, 1971). He found that adults usually talked about their day in episodes, or spans of time that described a certain event. He also saw that adults were spending about15 hours a week learning, but that this time may be spent on learning many different things at once (Tough, 2002). Tough found that some adult learners (about 10%) were not interested in learning and that they were content with not learning. When the 10% of adults were questioned, Tough found that they had done many things in their lifetime to learn different things, and in their current
Monday, November 18, 2019
The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from. - Andrew S. Tannenbaum - Essay Example Computer users are required to use computers in a way or manner respecting the needs of the other computer users and the society in general. There are practises in computing that are regarded illegal, immoral, and unprofessional. Professional responsibility Experts in the field of computing have moral duties and responsibilities to their customers, their bosses, colleagues, as well as the society in general geared towards achieving or accomplishing their skilled and specialised obligations. In other words, all professionals in the field off computing have from time immemorial guided by a code of ethics that guides them to make their own resolutions when face with moral issues. It is important to consider the fact that professional responsibility in computing is directed by moral values and standards, trustworthiness, morality, impartiality, independence as well as magnanimity (Bott, 2005). In definition, professional responsibilities can be defined as the supplementary or extra oblig ations that ought to be assumed by computing professionals or computer users in respect to their exceptional and distinctive understanding, talents, and abilities (Baase, 2012). According to Bott (2005), these ought to be also assumed in respect to their relationship and connections between them and other individuals in computing practise, and the faith and hope of the public in general. Therefore, a computing professional is supposed to support, maintain, and defend the standards and principles within the society, diagnose, identify, and follow the set rules and guidelines of professional practise, and as well endorse and encourage individuals of the public in their endeavours. The role of code of ethics A code of ethics is defined as the standards or principles adopted by an institution aimed at helping employees and other stakeholders within that particular institution make a distinction between what is considered wrong and what is right. Codes of ethics in computing acts to help computer users to comprehend the decisions they make. It is of importance for professionals to ensure that computers are used correctly in order to maintain professionalism. The use of computers in many organisations or institutions is subject to a number of guidelines or procedures. These set guidelines and procedures of practise that ought to be followed discourage individuals using computers in their endeavours to avoid any issues that may invade or go against the certification agreements or accords. There are a lot of standards for computer users to choose from and sometimes it might be confusing. In learning institutions for instance, learners using computer technology have to comply with the set guidelines and standards. These are otherwise known as the code of ethics. Any member of the learning institution or any other person affiliated to the learning institution is bound by the code of ethics either legally or morally (Bynum and Rogerson, 2004). There have been cases in th e past whereby some people have used another personÃ¢â¬â¢s email account deceitfully. Institutions have put it down in their codes of ethics that such behaviours are illegal and anyone found guilty of employing fabricated and deceitful identity can be sentenced to serve time in jail or pay a fine. It is not enough to talk about the factors that helps maintain professional practise in computing today without mentioning the negative effects of computers on children. Computers within the reach of children should be
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Consider how Shakespeare presents madness Essay Consider how Shakespeare presents madness in the play and explain whether you think it does illustrate how, something is rotten in the state of Denmark. One of the main themes in Hamlet is that of madness. Shakespeare conveys madness through not only Hamlet but through other characters as well, such as Ophelia, to covey that that the state of Denmark is rotten. At the beginning of the play, the first thing introduced are the night watchmen seeing the ghost. This is at the beginning because it is the first event in the chain that eventually leads to Hamlet seeking revenge for his fathers death. Although he was upset by his fathers death and his mothers oerhasty marriage, it was the revelation that his father was murdered that he thinks that he must take revenge. When Horatio first speaks to the ghost he recognises that it is unnatural for it to be there; What art thou that unsurpst this time of night, illustrating that he feels that the ghost has wrongfully seized the night. The atmosphere is unsettling and the ghosts unnatural appearance is a sign of the bad things going on in Denmark, especially the court; This bodes some strange eruption to our state. During the times that the play was written, unusual things that happened were seen as a sign that something was not right in the courts; Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. This could be referring either to the whole of Denmark, or just the courts. It is after Hamlet sees the ghost that he decides that he will pretend to be mad; put an antic disposition on, but he does not want his friends to tell anyone what they have seen or that he is feigning madness; Never make known what you have seen tonight, as he believes that this way he can find means to exact his revenge on Claudius for killing his father; And thy commandment all alone shall live within the book and volume of my brain, meaning that all he shall have in his thoughts is how the ghost of his father told him to exact revenge on Claudius. This is the first step in the theme of madness for the play. Although Hamlet clearly says that he will be putting on his madness, it is uncertain whether actually he does go mad during the play, as illustrated in his outbursts towards his mother and Ophelia, and the murder of Polonius. There is much deception during the play, such as Claudius trying to gloss over the fact that he knows that his marriage to Gertrude could be seen as incest by the Church and that Hamlet should have been the rightful heir to the throne; Yet so far hath discretion fought with nature that we with wisest sorrow think on him together with remembrance of ourselves. He says that he is mourning and feels that mourning is appropriate for the old king, but he must think of himself, perhaps hinting at the fact that the death was convenient for him and he has had enough of mourning. This is characteristic of him throughout the play as all he has done and will do is for his own self interest, as when Hamlet asks if he can leave the castle, Claudius refuses, saying; And we beseech you, bend you to remain here in the cheer and comfort of our eye. He appears to be asking him to stay for his comfort, but he actually wants to keep an eye on him because he knows that he is still a threat to him and the throne. He at first seemed to want Hamlet to become like a son to him, but that changes as soon as he realises he could be a threat to him. He also continually uses the words we, our and us to establish himself as the husband of Gertrude and the King of Denmark. Polonius comments; with pious action we do sugar oer the devil himself. To which Claudius replies as an aside; The harlots cheek, beautied with plastering art, is not more ugly to the thing that helps it than is my deed to my most painted word. Claudius admits that he is covering up the truth, continuing the theme of deception, adding to the audiences awareness of the rottenness of Denmark. As there becomes more deception and secrecy throughout the play, it seems that the imagery in the language reflects the deception, and images of disease are used; For the sun breed maggots in a dead dog, being a good kissing carrion. This could be language to refer to how that state of Denmark is rotting, but also Hamlets language seems to reflect his turmoil as he tried to decide what to do about Claudius, and as he gets more frustrated with himself he becomes more abusive towards his mother and Ophelia; You are keen my lord, you are keen. It would cost you a groaning to take off mine edge. He is taunting Ophelia using double meaning. Hamlet is very good at creating double meanings, like when he says to Claudius; I am to much ithsun, which he says as if he is in too much sunshine but also he is saying that he feels too much like Claudiuss son. Later in the play the text says; It will but skin and film the ulcerous place, whiles rank corruption, mining all within, infects unseen. He is saying that corruption, like infection starts within, and the corruption of Denmark will begin with the court. This also links in with madness because madness also starts from within within the mind, and perhaps it is saying that just one unstable mind could bring down all the state. Another way that Shakespeare presents madness in the play is through Ophelia. She goes mad after Hamlet kills her father, but also because of the way Hamlet treated her cruelly. He said to her that he loved her, and there were some hints that he had been intimate with her, but he treats her badly and even tells her that he does not love her. She has been a victim of a corrupt society from Hamlet leaving her and from her father, such as using her as a pawn to spy on Hamlet. After she has become mad, she sings many songs. The first one that she sings is, How should I you true love know. This song could be her recalling the death of her father; He is dead and gone lady, he is dead and gone. This is the first thing that comes into her mind to sing about, so it must be the thing that is foremost in her mind. It could also be that she is recalling how Hamlet is now lost to her, and she is still looking for her true love, because it seems obvious that she has not found him yet. However, the rest of the songs seem to be about Hamlet, as they are about lost love and some of them imply that Ophelia had been sexually intimate with Hamlet; Quoth she, before you tumbled me you promised me to wed. It seems that both her father and Hamlet are responsible for Ophelias madness, and this is reiterated by what Ophelia sings about. Ophelia was controlled all the men in her life, and this was customary for the time, but it seems that they took too much of a hold on her, with none of them considering her feelings, for her father told her to no longer speak to Hamlet as it could affect his career, Laertes also told her to stay away from Hamlet and Hamlet was cruel to her. She also says, after her first song; They say the owl was a bakers daughter. This could just be nonsense, but it could also be referring to her father, saying that once she was the daughter of a man in the court, but now she is just the daughter of a dead old man. Polonius did help the corruption in Denmark, such as spying and trying to make sure his own career was safe, and because of him Ophelia is mad. Hamlet also said that he loved Ophelia, and whereas before he was tender, due to the corruption around him and his succumbing to it, he was a factor in Ophelias madness, which eventually led to her suicide. By the actions of people around her, Ophelia is tainted by the corruptness around, as Hamlet says in the beginning of the play says that she is pure, but later on says she is wanton like all women, and tells her; to a nunnery go. This could be to send her to be protected, or it could be a sarcastic remark telling her to go to a brothel.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Genetic Modification: Methodology, Ethics and Importance Genetic modification: methodology, ethicality and importance of understanding Sarah Bernadette Dacanay Word Count (excluding references): 1418 words Introduction The 21st century is a time where science is progressing at rapid speed with the development of new methods used to improve the livelihood of human life. Such methods include the controversial genetic modification of organisms and products, in order to produce effective vaccines, food sources, etc. (Glenn, 2013). Australia like many nations genetically modifies some of its food and plants (i.e. cows, chicken, wheat, cotton, etc.) (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2014) and before being accessible to the public, are heavily regulated by the Gene Technology Regulator (GTR). Furthermore, scientists and organizations such CSIRO (CSIRO, 2010) are constantly finding means to improve the efficiency of the methods and its ethicality. As such, scientific evidence regarding genetic modification is constantly being updated. Genetic modification can potentially offer tremendous benefits, but as it is still relatively new, there are many uncertainties regarding its methods and ethicality. Thus, much of the public is still unsure on where they stand. The need for current and credible information about this field is undeniably important for the public, in order to gain a better understanding about its advantages and disadvantages. And once this knowledge is gained, they can make a sound decision on where they want to stand with the progression of this field of research. Source 1: eBook file Source/Author The eBook file, National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012 Outlines the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ethical principles and values relevant toÃ¢â¬ ¦ gene technologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëaims to promote well-informed ethical decision makingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ (Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee, 2012). The research into the guidelines outlined in the book has been done by the Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee (GTECCC) under the guidance and watch of the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR). The GTECCC provides advice on the request of the Gene Technology Regulator (GTR), or the Gene Technology Ministerial Council (GTMC) regarding ethical issues and policy principles with relation to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products (GM). The 11 appointments for the committee are done by the Hon Catherine King, Parliamentary Secretary for Health and Ageing after consulting the GTR, State/Territory Ministers and organizations relating to science, consumers, heath, environmental and industry (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, n.d.). The members chosen to be part of this committee are experts who range from community consultation, ethics, genetic research and risk communication just to name a few. For example, Donald Chalmers, the Chair of the GTECCC, is a Distinguished Professor at the University of Tasmania and is the Director of the Centre for Law and Genetics; and Ms Corrinna Lange, another member, has a wealth of knowledge regarding science communication through her various roles within public and private sector organizations. (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2012). The fear of bias by the authors while constructing the framework due to conflict of interests, is easily solved as members are Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦subject to strict disclosure of interest provisionsÃ¢â¬ ¦contained in the Gene Technology Regulations 2001Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ in which, it is stated that Ã¢â¬ËBefore the Minister appoints a person as an expert advisoryÃ¢â¬ ¦must obtainÃ¢â¬ ¦a declaration setting out all direct or indirect interestsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ (Expert Advisers Ã¢â¬â disclosure of interests, 2001). The compiled research is also subject to act in accordance to the Gene Technology Act 2000 (Cwth) in which s.3 states that Ã¢â¬Å"the object of this Act is to protect the health and safety of peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦protects the environment by identifying risks posed by or as a result of gene technologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢. As such, the information provided by the GTECCC in their eBook publication stating the framework for ethics and decision making regarding genetic research and modification i s highly credible. Publisher The Australian Commonwealth Government is a non-partisan institute regarding genetic modification and is undoubtedly established as being credible and well-respected. The credibility of a book lies not only with the author but, also with the publisher; the organization/institute who funds or supports the research of the author/s. The organization/institute and authors are therefore responsible for the information being published. In this case, the funding and support of this eBook, the National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012 (Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee, 2012) research came from the Australian Commonwealth Government. As the information published inside therefore not only reflects the views and opinions of the author, but is also considered as credible information by the Australian Commonwealth Government. Therefore, as the Australian Commonwealth Government is a credible publisher, the eBooksÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gene Technology Ethics an d Community Consultative Committee, 2012) credibility is also reinforced. Source 2: Journal Article Peer-Review Process Peer-review is a commonly used process during the editing phase of scientific journals to distinguish what articles sent to be published in the journal are credible, relevant and publish worthy. The process requires the article to be sent and scrutinised by experts in the same field who are considered as Ã¢â¬Ëpeer-reviewersÃ¢â¬â¢. They asses the Ã¢â¬Ëvalidity, significance and originalityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sense About Science, 2005) and ultimately act as Ã¢â¬Ëan error detection systemÃ¢â¬â¢ (Science Media Centre, 2003). In order to asses these criterions, the results and experiments are re-tested by these peer-reviewers to ensure that the findings are accurate. A decision is then made on whether the article should be published or rejected. If the decision is for the article to be published, it will either be sent back to the author/s for the final review or sometimes, may go straight into publishing after gaining the approval of the Chief Editor (Understanding Science, 2014). My chosen journal article (Macdonald et al., 2012) was initially handed into the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on December 4, 2011 for review before being published in their online journal. One of the many peer-reviewers assigned to the article was R. Michael Roberts, University of Missouri, Columbia. Dr RobertsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a member of the National Academy of Science and his research areas include Ã¢â¬Ëutilizing human embryonic stem cells (hESC)Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëinduced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)Ã¢â¬ ¦ by reprogramming.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Department of Biochemistry University of Missouri, n.d.). The knowledge he holds in the field therefore, indicates his sound ability as a reviewer for the article, proving him capable of making good judgement on whether the claims and conclusions stated are credible. Photographic Evidence Photographic evidence is an effective way to illustrate the processes and results that should be reached during an experiment. It provides the experimenter with an indication on whether the methods are accurately followed. The Materials and Methods section of the journal article (Macdonald et al., 2012), with its various reference images fulfils this purpose. For example, Figure 6, part B in the Materials and Methods section, indicates how the Ã¢â¬Ëcross-section of a 3 day embryo a day after the injection of GFP-expressing PGCsÃ¢â¬â¢ should look like (Macdonald et al., 2012). Furthermore, the results are set out in clear graphs which are annotated. This can be seen in Figure 2, part D of the Results section, which contains a graph comparing the Ã¢â¬Ëstable transfection rates of piggyBac and Tol2 transposons in PGCs.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Macdonald et al., 2012). The annotations also indicate that the collected and graphed data represent a minimum of four independent experiments. The clarity and in-depth expression, through photographic evidence and compiled data, leave little room for error as it indicates what outcomes should be reached by their methods. This not only makes it easy for those trialling the experiment to compare results, but it also expresses their strong belief that their research is credible. Summary The boundless amounts of information, found on the internet and at libraries regarding genetic modification, can overwhelm individuals when they first begin researching to grasp a better understanding about the field. Furthermore, as the field is constantly updating and newer efficient methodologies are being discovered, Ã¢â¬ËnewÃ¢â¬â¢ information can grow Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢ relatively fast and thus lose its credibility. The two scholarly sources, the eBook (Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee, 2012) and the journal article, (Macdonald et al., 2012) I have chosen, are in my opinion examples of credible information. I assessed their credibility under the following criteria: source/author and publisher for the eBook; the peer-review process and photographic evidence for the journal article, and found that the criteria were fulfilled. Thus, indicating that the information from the two scholarly sources is credible. Therefore, to conclude, the information with in the two sources can be used to either grasp a better understanding about the field of genetic modification, or be used as references in university research assignment tasks. References American Psychological Association. (2013). The Rules for Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/07/the-rules-for-federal-regulations-i-code-of-federal-regulations.html CSIRO. (2010). Gene technology. Retrieved from http://www.csiro.au/Outcomes/Food-and-Agriculture/Gene-technology.aspx Curators of the University of Missouri. (2006). Welcome to the Roberts Lab Website. Retrieved from http://robertslab.missouri.edu/ Department of Biochemistry University of Missouri. (n.d.). R. Michael Roberts. Retrieved from http://biochem.missouri.edu/faculty/faculty-members/robertsm/index.php Expert Advisers Ã¢â¬â disclosure of interests, 23 Gene Technology Regulations Ã §1 (2001) Gene Technology Act 2000 (Cwth) s.3 (Austl.) Glenn, L. M. (2013). Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics. Retrieved from http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotechnology/glenn.html Office of the Gene Technology Regulator. (2012). GTECCC members. Retrieved from http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/content/gteccc-members11-htm Office of the Gene Technology Regulator. (2014). Record of GM Product Dealings. Retrieved from http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/content/gmfoodprod4-htm Office of the Gene Technology Regulator. (n.d.). Genetically Modified Product approvals. Retrieved from http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/content/gmoprod-1 Office of the Gene Technology Regulator. (n.d.). The Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee. Retrieved from http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/content/gteccc-2 Science Media Centre (2003) Communicating peer review in a soundbite, p.1. Sense about Science. (2004). Peer Review AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS. London, England: Author. Sense about Science. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"I DONÃ¢â¬â¢T KNOW WHAT TO BELIEVEÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Making sense of science stories. London, England: Author. Sense about Science. (2009). MAKING SENSE OF GM. London, England: Author. Understanding Science University of California Museum of Paleontology. (n.d.). Scrutinizing science: Peer Review. Retrieved from: http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/howscienceworks_16 University Library University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (n.d.). Is it scholarly? Tips for critically evaluating your information resources. Retrieved from http://www.library.illinois.edu/ugl/howdoi/scholarly.html University of Western Australia Med Library. (n.d.). Vancouver citation style. Retrieved from http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=279406sid=2323728 University of Western Australia Science Library. (n.d.). APA citation style. Retrieved from http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/apa Victoria University. (n.d.). APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide. Retrieved from http://guides.library.vu.edu.au/content.php?pid=270421sid=2230821 References for two scholarly sources: Peer-Reviewed Journal Article (Primary Source): APA:Ã Macdonald, J., Taylor, L., Sherman, A., Kawakami, K., Takahashi, Y., Sang, Helen M., McGrew, Michael J. (2012). EfÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cient genetic modiÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cation and germ-line transmission of primordial germ cells using piggyBac and Tol2 transposons.Ã Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,109(23), E1466-E1472. doi:10.1073/pnas.1118715109 Vancouver: Macdonald J, Taylor L, Sherman A, Kawakami K, Takahashi Y, Sang HM, McGrew MJ. EfÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cient genetic modiÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cation and germ-line transmission of primordial germ cells using piggyBac and Tol2 transposons. [Internet]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2012. [cited 2014 March 15]; 109(23) [about 7 p.]. Available from:Ã http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/05/10/1118715109.abstract Grey Literature (PDF file): APA: Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee. (2012).Ã National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012Ã [PDF]. Retrieved fromÃ http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/gtecccpapers-1/$FILE/gtecccethicalprinciples2012.pdf Vancouver: Gene Technology Ethics and Community Consultative Committee. National Framework of Ethical Principles in Gene Technology 2012 [Internet]. Commonwealth of Australia; 2012 [revised 2014 Feb 2; cited 2014 Mar 15]. Available from:Ã http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/gtecccpapers-1/$FILE/gtecccethicalprinciples2012.pdf Sarah Bernadette Dacanay
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Isaac's Obsession with Money in Ivanhoe Ã Ã Sir Walter Scott's riveting classic, Ivanhoe, is a wonderfully woven story of battles, adventure, comedy, and love. In this story we encounter Robin Hood, Richard the Lion-Hearted, Prince John, and some less known but important characters. The reader meets Cedric the Saxon, who is guardian to the beautiful Rowena, and his swine herder Gurth along with his fool friend Wamba. In their adventures throughout the book they meet a feeble old man. He is a Jew. Rebecca is his beautiful daughter. Together they live in a fancy house of great wealth. For you see, Isaac is a very wealthy Jew, who is very much in love with his money. Ã We first learn of Isaac's love for money right after he is introduced. He arrives at the home of Cedric the Saxon, and sleeps in the room next to the Palmer. Awakened by the Palmer, who tells Isaac about a plan to take his life, they leave in the early morning and proceed to the city of Sheffield. When they arrive, Isaac thanks the Palmer and tells him that he cannot pay him much, but will give what little he has. The Palmer denies payment but Isaac insists on giving him a horse and bridle. Ã Isaac's love for his money is great enough that he would not pay even a little sum of money to someone who did him a favor. After the first day of the tournament, the Disinherited Knight has Gurth return the money they borrowed from Isaac. Gurth arrives at the house. Isaac asks how much money Gurth has in his money bag and demands all of it for payment. While Isaac is counting out the eighty zecchins, he almost gives one to Gurth for bringing the money, but can't find it in his heart to do so. Gurth leaves and on his way out Isaac's daughter gives Gurth eighty zecchins to give to his master and twenty for himself. Ã Isaac cannot bear parting with his money, even if it means dying for it. While being held captive in a castle, his captor asks for money in exchange for his freedom. Isaac cries out that he can get the money, but must go to his brothers from his tribe to borrow it! Why does he need to borrow money when he has so much?
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
A Postmodern Cultural Perspective in Lolita and A Streetcar Named Desire Postmodernism has emerged as a reaction to modernism thoughts and "well-established modernist systems". (Wikipedia, 2005) Specific to Nabokov's Lolita and Williams' Streetcar Named Desire is the idea that both of the novels are written under the view of postmodernism as a cultural movement and that they are broadly defined as the condition of Western society especially after World War II (period in which the novel were written; 1947 for Streetcar and 1955 for Lolita). While modernists viewed people as autonomous (capable of independent rational thought), postmodernists see human identity and thinking as the product of culture. (Xenos Christian Fellowship, 2005). The postmodern main assumption here is that culture and society create individuals as well as all their thoughts and attitudes. Lolita and A Streetcar Named Desire both treat of Cultural Relativism, which is the view that each culture has it's own truths that are relevant to them, but not relevant to other cultures. (Wikipedia, 2005) Economic changes, immigration, capitalism expansion, development of mass and popular culture, which result of the post-war period will also play a great role in defining cultural perspectives in Nabokov and Williams' stories and characters but also in defining the American culture itself. The main characters serve as archetypes of different cultures and symbolizes the integration of Europe in the the Un... ...umbert's European ear also revises American idiom when he talk about his "west-door neighbor." (Lolita, p. 179) To conclude, both stories have a strong cultural orientation, which result from the post World War II environment, in which a crassly materialistic and insensitive industrial society followed. The postmodern assumption that human identity and thinking are the product of culture and that culture and society create individuals as well as all their thoughts and attitudes (Xenos Christian Fellowship, 2005), is clearly demonstrated by Lolita's consumerist ideals and Blanche's collapse in the new southern culture.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Michael Sandels essay The Case against Perfection (The Atlantic Monthly, April, 2004) is basically a stand that opposes the idea of genetic enhancement primarily via cloning. Sandels places forward his idea of what is wrong with genetic engineering. He admitted its benefits, but he also tried to show how bad it could be allow cloning and genetic engineering. Sandels starts with a thesis that states his stand over the subject matter. His choice of words even in the first sentence alone shows his opposition to the idea of using genetic engineering to enhance the next generationÃ offspring of a couple.. Throughout the text, the readers find Sandels pondering on perspetive of the advocates of genetic engineering, talking about the possibilities of the technology and then giving the possible good effects that the development of the technology might bring. He then talks about the how the different popular issues against genetic engineering may be invalid. He defends the stand of genetic engineers, but not to really defend it, but only to show why some reasons some parties are against it are not valid at all. Then, he would present the case which he believes is the more valid reason why genetic engineering should not be used to enhance the future generations. Sandels attacks the issue by presenting its different facets using analogies and logical reasoning. Even a s he ended the essay, he quoted what he must have believed to be the stronges and the most tempting reasons why genetic engineering should be given a chance to be used to enhance future generations Ã¢â¬â perfect muscles, right height,Ã intelligence, and freedom from diseases.Ã Yet, like in the other paragraphs, Sandels only refuted the idea of genetic engineering, however, his he failed to lay in details his counter against the satnd of the last author he quoted. In his attempt to show all the sides of the issue to avoid being biased, Sandels showed clearly how the idea of the advocates of genetic engineering works. But most of the time, he is unable to discuss clearly why the idea of the advocates he mention the different parts of the essay are wrong. In some cases, he had problems with reasoning. Let us start with the first issue he raised in the first paragraph. The last part of the paragraph sounds strong, but there are flaws in his reasoning: Ã¢â¬Å"In liberal societies they reach first for the language of autonomy, fairness, and individual rights. But this part of our moral vocabulary is ill equipped to address the hardest questions posed by genetic engineering.Ã¢â¬ This reasoning is like an ad hominem, only, it does not attack the speaker but the words which encompass the basis of the liberal societies in advocating genetic engineering. In ad hominem, the argument attacks the speaker rather than the reason, but here the words Ã¢â¬Å"autonomyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"fairnessÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"individual rightsÃ¢â¬ appear to be the sources f the argument and are the ones being attacked instead of the arguments that are according to Sandels, founded on these words. Instead of focusing on the reasons, he preempted the arguments of the believers of genetic engineering by claiming there is something wrong with how we define the Ã¢â¬Å"autonomyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"fairnessÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"equal rightsÃ¢â¬ . It can further be noted that Sandels himself refuted the oppositions to genetic engineering that are based on autonomy. He did not define clearly what he meant by autonomy in his essay. Moreover, instead of strengthening the position of the opposing parties that base their arguments on autonomy. What he strengthened rather was the stand of genetic engineers when he made analogies between cloning and using botox and steroids. When he countered the argument about autonomy, the first reason he gave why the argument was not convincing is: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦it wrongly implies that absent a designing parent, children are free to choose their characteristics for themselves. But none of us chooses his genetic inheritance. The alternative to a cloned or genetically enhanced child is not one whose future is unbound by particular talents but one at the mercy of the genetic lottery.Ã¢â¬ (par. 5) His point seems rather ambiguous, for what is the sense of the second sentence of the excerpt? How can an enhanced child be at the mercy of the genetic lottery when the parents have already determined the childÃ¢â¬â¢s genes? Moreover, he mentioned that the argument has a wrong implication Ã¢â¬â that children whose parents did not choose their genes for them are free to choose their characteristics for themselves. The argument states that parents disallow the rights of the child to an open future by choosing a genetic structure of the kid in advance. His does not imply that children can choose their genes. It only wants to say that if their genes are not pre-selected by their parents, they can choose their career paths based on what pleases them and not based on the genes that their parents designed for them, and he even explained it this way. In paragraph 8, he drags the issue to theology, that claiming that it is a matter of moral. He makes it appear that the only way to resolve this issue is by consulting theological thoughts about the issue. He is pushing the idea that this issue can only be resolved if we look into the moral status of nature and proper stance of the human beings toward the given world. He may be right that this is a moral issue, but the grounds on which he based his arguments seem not well founded. This part of his paper appears more like a moralistic fallacy. He seems to be setting up the readers for something that would discuss how things should be and let that be the basis of the argument against genetic engineering or be the argument itself. In paragraph 9, he made a generalization, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone would welcome a gene therapy to alleviate muscular dystrophy and to reverse the debilitating muscle loss that comes with old age.Ã¢â¬ This is perhaps a swift overview or an overgeneralization. How could he be sure that everyone would be open to the idea? He did not even present any survey to support his claim at least inductively. This is a sweeping statement that can be toppled any who would say that he does not welcome a gene therapy to alleviate muscular dystrophy or to reverse the debilitating muscle loss. In the same paragraph, he made weak analogy. The author claimed Ã¢â¬Å"The widespread use of steroids and other performance-improving drugs in professional sports suggests that many athletes will be eager to avail themselves of genetic enhancement.Ã¢â¬ Logically speaking, it does not follow that though A and B have similarities, what applies to A will apply to B. Though his claim may be true, he fails to make the necessary connections to establish a strong analogy between genetic engineering and performance enhancers. Again, as he had done in the earlier paragraphs, in paragraph 11, Sandels presents an argument against genetic engineering and refutes it: Ã¢â¬Å"It might be argued that a genetically enhanced athlete, like a drug-enhanced athlete, would have an unfair advantage over his unenhanced competitors. But the fairness argument against enhancement has a fatal flaw: it has always been the case that some athletes are better endowed genetically than others, and yet we do not consider this to undermine the fairness of competitive sports.Ã¢â¬ Here, mentions that the fatal flaw in the argument is that there have always been athletes who are disadvantaged because some athletes are better endowed. That some athletes are better endowed than others is true, but that this fact is a fatal flaw is the flawed idea. This is a case of fallacy of relevance. Being genetically or drug enhanced is very different from being genetically endowed by nature. A person endowed by nature with genes that make him competitive may have an advantage over those who are not endowed, but both have the equal chance to enhance their abilities through practice. However, it must be considered that an athlete is more likely genetically endowed than not. Hence, the biggest factor is not the natural abilities of the athlete, but perhaps the preparedness of the athlete for a contest. If an athlete is drug enhanced or genetically enhanced, he may not need to practice or train as hard to achieve the results he wants. Therefore, Sandels conclusion that Ã¢â¬Å"if genetic development in sports is ethically offensive, it should be for motives other than fairnessÃ¢â¬ is invalid. In paragraph 14, Sandels proposes two reasons why we should worry about bioengineering Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Is the scenario troubling because the unenhanced poor would be denied the benefits of bioengineering, or because the enhanced affluent would somehow be dehumanized?Ã¢â¬ Above this is his belief that Ã¢â¬Å"worry about access ignores the moral status of enhancement itself.Ã¢â¬ In his argument, Sandels commits a fallacy of presumption, specifically, a fallacy of dilemmas. He limits the situation to two negative scenario Ã¢â¬â the poor cannot afford the cost of genetic enhancement and the rich who can afford become dehumanized. The question is, Ã¢â¬Å"what evidences point to the situations he is saying?Ã¢â¬ What he is saying may be plausible, but he is not able to develop it logically to make the premises strong and firm. Limiting his choices to only two scenarios makes it appear that there is nothing more to bioengineering than deprivation of the poor of it and the dehumanization of the rich. This reasoning also makes it appear that only the rich may be able to access genetic enhancement. Furthermore, he limited the tern dehumanization to the rich. This poses a sort of bias to those who can afford it, when earlier in the paper he was talking about athletes who might access genetic enhancement the way they do performance enhancement drugs. Towards the end of paragraph 14, Sandels had a firm claim that Ã¢â¬Å"the fundamental question is not how to ensure equal access to enhancement but whether we should aspire to it in the first place.Ã¢â¬ This is a misleading notion of presumption. He makes this assumption and lets the evidences suit it rather than conclude based on empirical data and logical analysis. It seems that only because Ã¢â¬Å"the fundamental question is not how to ensure equal access,Ã¢â¬ then the major concern is whether we should desire for it (bioengineering) in the first place. What he is saying may be true, but the way he develops it makes his reasoning invalid. It weakens his propositions. He repeats the same fallacy in paragraph 18 when he claimed that the real question about growth hormones is not its availability but whether we want to live in a society where the parents spend for genetic enhancement. In his discussion about the possible solutions to problems of unequal access to bioengineering, he made it sound all too simple for the government to subsidize the demands even of the poor. He did not realize that had the governments of different countries the money or funds, they would rather use that money to make sure nobody gets hungry, and not on expensive genetic enhancement that does not have any promise to save people from hunger based on any study. He created a scenario that seemed too easy to happen just to let his idea stand out. His proposition is perhaps a more important question, but the way he brings it out hurts the validity of his arguments. Another issue on his discussion of genetic enhancement is the ability of the parents to choose the sex of their child. In the previous paragraphs he would always state the case of something that is already prevalent and then compare it with genetic engineering. Here, he only mentioned that where folk remedies failed, genetic enhancement or bioengineering can be of help. Through bioengineering, a couple can choose the sex of the offspring. He pointed out in his discussion about this matter that choosing the sex of the offspring somehow removes the giftedness when the child comes. The child not longer comes as a gift, but more like a planned object. He did not criticize how folk remedies also tend create the same effect whether they are effective or not. It is clear ere how he leans toward a bias in attacking genetic engineering. Sandels also had reasons that are too far flung from reality. Consider his argument in paragraph 30. While it is true that effort is not everything, it would not have been possible that a basketball paler who trains harder than Michael Jordan would be a mediocre player. It would take a lot to be more than like Jordan and to earn more than he did, but one who trains harder he (Jordan) did would not remain mediocre. He is using an impossible scenario to create his point. And that does not make much sense at all. In paragraph 40, Sandels said that Ã¢â¬Å"Genetic manipulation seems somehow worse Ã¢â¬â more intrusive, more sinister Ã¢â¬â than other ways of enhancing performance and seeking success.Ã¢â¬ There is a grave error here suggesting that all efforts of parents in seeking to enhance the performance of their children so they may become successful are bad, intrusive, or sinister. What of parents who personally train their children? What of parents who lets their children attend to trainings that they want to attend, because they (the children) want to be successful in that endeavor? Would that be sinister? Maybe that is not what he means, but that is the message his paper seems to be putting across. It could have been better if he specified which ways of enhancing the childÃ¢â¬â¢s performance are sinister. In paragraph 53, Sandels wants to pint out that genetic engineering does not only violate religious morals, but also secular morals: Ã¢â¬Å"The moral stakes can also be described in secular terms. If bioengineering made the myth of the Ã¢â¬Å"self-made manÃ¢â¬ come true, it would be difficult to view our talents as gifts for which we are indebted, rather than as achievements for which we are responsible. This would transform three key features of our moral landscape: humility, responsibility, and solidarity.Ã¢â¬ He denies religion in this part, but he talks about gifts for which we are indebted. The question now, is, Ã¢â¬Å"to whom are we indebted?Ã¢â¬ Taking our talents as gifts inevitably leads us to a proposition that involves religion, for where will the gift come from? If the gifts were merely from nature, to whom do we owe humility, responsibility, and solidarity? He further argues that genetic engineering takes away these three. He forgets to consider that the characteristics of a person are but secondary. What a person, whether genetically endowed or not, savors most is life itself. With or without genetic enhancement, a person has reasonability to his fellowmen. In the same way, whether genetically enhanced or not, a person may be boastful or humble depending on how the parents reared him. Solidarity has nothing to do with genetic enhancement or endowment. People unite for a common cause, for love and for peace. His argument is presuming that genetically enhanced individuals are incapable of humility, responsibility, and solidarity, but he did not develop the issue logically. If his statements in paragraph 53 were factual, why did he have to mention, Ã¢â¬Å"The more we become masters of our genetic endowments, the greater the burden we bear for the talents we have and the way we performÃ¢â¬ ? Immediately following this, he mentioned about the future scenario in which a basketball player may be blamed now for missing rebound, but in the future for being short. Here is another reasoning error, for who would hire a small basketball player if not for his exceptional skill? Basketball payers are usually tall, hired for height and skill, so what is saying is another far flung argument. The last argument in favor f genetic engineering he mentioned pondered on the possibilities of enhancing IQ and physical abilities of children. All he said about this is, Ã¢â¬Å"But that promise of mastery is flawed. It threatens to banish our appreciation of life as a gift, and to leave us with nothing to affirm or behold outside our own will.Ã¢â¬ If it were indeed flawed, then how is it flawed? How can it banish our appreciation of life as a gift? How can he say hat it leaves us with nothing to behold and affirm with our free will when he himself talked about being endowed by nature? He may be right to think that cloning and other forms of genetic engineering have setbacks, but his essay provided arguments that are pro genetic engineering that he failed to counter effectively. References Sandel, M. J. (April 2004). The Case Against Perfection. Retrieved 9 April 2008, from http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/medical_ethics/me0056.html) Ã
Monday, November 11, 2019
INSTRUCTOR: Mr. Konstantinos Kanellopoulos, MSc (L. S. E. ), M. B. A. COURSE: MBA-680-50-SUIII12 Corporate Financial Theory SEMESTER: Summer Session III Case Study The Many Different Kinds of Debt (solutions) Konstantinos Kanellopoulos 22nd August 2012 CASE STUDY ON The many different kinds of debt It was one of MorseÃ¢â¬â¢s most puzzling cases. That morning Rupert Thorndike, the autocratic CEO of Thorndike Oil, was found dead in a pool of blood on his bedroom floor. He had been shot through the head, but the door and windows were bolted on the inside and there was no sign of the murder weapon. Morse looked in vain for clues in ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s office.He had to take another tack. He decided to investigate the financial circumstances surrounding ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure was as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ 5% debentures: $250 million face value. The bonds matured in 10 years and offered a yield of 12%. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stock: 30 million shares, which closed at $ 9 a share the day before the murder. Yesterday Thorndike had flatly rejected an offer by T. Spoone Dickens to buy all of the common stock for $10 a share. With Thorndike out of the way, it appeared that DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer would be accepted, mush to the profit of Thorndike OilÃ¢â¬â¢s other shareholders.ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s two nieces, Doris and Patsy, and his nephew John all had substantial investments in Thorndike Oil and had bitterly disagreed with ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissal of DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer. Their stakes are shown in the following table: | |5% Debentures (Face Value) |Shares of Stock | |Doris |$4 million |1. 2 million | |John |0 |0. | |Patsy |0 |1. 5 | All debt issued by Thorndike Oil would be paid off at face value if DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer went through. Morse kept coming back to the problem of motive. Which niece or nephew, he wondered stood to gain most by eliminating Thorndike and allowing DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer to succeed? Help Morse solve the case. Which of ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s relatives stood to gain most from his death? Solutions THE SHOCKING DEMISE OF MR. THORNDIKEMinicase solution, Chapter 25 Principles of Corporate Finance, 9th Edition R. A. Brealey, S. C. Myers and F. Allen After the corpse was removed, police inspectors came to dust the bedroom for fingerprints. Morse knew they would find nothing. He walked down the marble staircase of Rupert ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s mansion and into the paneled library. He sat at a table in front of the fireplace, scarcely noticing the painting over it, MonetÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait of the legendary John D. Thorndike at Giverny. He turned on his laptop computer. Thorndike Oil had three classes of securities outstanding: $250 million of ebentures (face value), 30 million shares, and an issue of subordinated convertible notes. Morse had to calculate the change in the value of each security now that Thorndike was gone, and given the now near-certain acquisition of Thorndike Oil by T. Spoone Dickens. Table 1 reports MorseÃ¢â¬â¢s results. The notes summarize his reasoning. With Table 1 in hand, it was easy to calculate the increases in value due to the murder and resulting acquisition. Debt increased by 39. 5% of face value. Common stock increased by $1. 00 per share, and each convertible note increased from 103. 5% to 110% of face value (from $1039. 50 to $1100 per bond). Morse summed the gains to Doris, John and Patsy (see Table 2). Then he reached for his cell phone and dialed Chief Inspector Spillane. Thorndike Oil Table 1 Values of Thorndike Oil Securities Before and After the Murder | |Before |After | |Debt |$151. 25 million, |$250 million | | |60. % of face value |100% of face value | |Equity |$270 million, |$300 million, | | |$9 per share |$10 per share | |Convertible notes |103. 95% of |110% of | | |face value |face value |Notes 1. Debt, before: PV at 12% of the 5% coupon for 10 years, plus repayment of face value (100%) at year 10, is 60. 5% of the $250 million face value, or $151. 25 million. Debt, after: essentially risk-free. The debt will be repaid in short order and should trade very close to face value. The gain in market value is 1 Ã¢â¬â . 605 = . 395, or 39. 5% of face value. 2. Shares: Share price increases from $9. 00 to $10. 00. 3. Convertible notes: Conversion value before is 110 shares at $9 per share = $990 per $1,000 note. The bonds were trading at 5% over conversion value, or 1. 05? 90 = $1,039. 50. Note holders will convert prior to the takeover, receiving 110? 10 = $1,100. (If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t convert, they get only $1,000. ) In other words, the notes increase by 110 Ã¢â¬â 103. 95 = 6. 05% of face value. Thorndike Oil Table 2 Who Gained Most? (Figures in millions) | |Doris |John |Patsy | | | | | | |Debt |$1. 8 |0 |0 | | |(. 395? 4) | | | | | | | | |Stock |$1. 2 |$0. 5 |$1. | | |(1. 00 ? 1. 2) |(1. 00 ? .5) |(1. 00 ? 1. 5) | | | | | | |Convertible notes |0 |$0. 3025 |$0. 1815 | | | |(. 0605 ? 5) |(. 0605 ? ) | | |___________ |___ ________ |_________ | |Total |$2. 78 |$0. 8025 |$1. 6815 | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Rupert ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s shares would go to a charitable foundation formed to advance the study of financial engineering and its crucial role in world peace and progress. The managers of the foundationÃ¢â¬â¢s endowment were not expected to oppose the takeover. Finance Case Study INSTRUCTOR: Mr. Konstantinos Kanellopoulos, MSc (L. S. E. ), M. B. A. COURSE: MBA-680-50-SUIII12 Corporate Financial Theory SEMESTER: Summer Session III Case Study The Many Different Kinds of Debt (solutions) Konstantinos Kanellopoulos 22nd August 2012 CASE STUDY ON The many different kinds of debt It was one of MorseÃ¢â¬â¢s most puzzling cases. That morning Rupert Thorndike, the autocratic CEO of Thorndike Oil, was found dead in a pool of blood on his bedroom floor. He had been shot through the head, but the door and windows were bolted on the inside and there was no sign of the murder weapon. Morse looked in vain for clues in ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s office.He had to take another tack. He decided to investigate the financial circumstances surrounding ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure was as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ 5% debentures: $250 million face value. The bonds matured in 10 years and offered a yield of 12%. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stock: 30 million shares, which closed at $ 9 a share the day before the murder. Yesterday Thorndike had flatly rejected an offer by T. Spoone Dickens to buy all of the common stock for $10 a share. With Thorndike out of the way, it appeared that DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer would be accepted, mush to the profit of Thorndike OilÃ¢â¬â¢s other shareholders.ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s two nieces, Doris and Patsy, and his nephew John all had substantial investments in Thorndike Oil and had bitterly disagreed with ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissal of DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer. Their stakes are shown in the following table: | |5% Debentures (Face Value) |Shares of Stock | |Doris |$4 million |1. 2 million | |John |0 |0. | |Patsy |0 |1. 5 | All debt issued by Thorndike Oil would be paid off at face value if DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer went through. Morse kept coming back to the problem of motive. Which niece or nephew, he wondered stood to gain most by eliminating Thorndike and allowing DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s offer to succeed? Help Morse solve the case. Which of ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s relatives stood to gain most from his death? Solutions THE SHOCKING DEMISE OF MR. THORNDIKEMinicase solution, Chapter 25 Principles of Corporate Finance, 9th Edition R. A. Brealey, S. C. Myers and F. Allen After the corpse was removed, police inspectors came to dust the bedroom for fingerprints. Morse knew they would find nothing. He walked down the marble staircase of Rupert ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s mansion and into the paneled library. He sat at a table in front of the fireplace, scarcely noticing the painting over it, MonetÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait of the legendary John D. Thorndike at Giverny. He turned on his laptop computer. Thorndike Oil had three classes of securities outstanding: $250 million of ebentures (face value), 30 million shares, and an issue of subordinated convertible notes. Morse had to calculate the change in the value of each security now that Thorndike was gone, and given the now near-certain acquisition of Thorndike Oil by T. Spoone Dickens. Table 1 reports MorseÃ¢â¬â¢s results. The notes summarize his reasoning. With Table 1 in hand, it was easy to calculate the increases in value due to the murder and resulting acquisition. Debt increased by 39. 5% of face value. Common stock increased by $1. 00 per share, and each convertible note increased from 103. 5% to 110% of face value (from $1039. 50 to $1100 per bond). Morse summed the gains to Doris, John and Patsy (see Table 2). Then he reached for his cell phone and dialed Chief Inspector Spillane. Thorndike Oil Table 1 Values of Thorndike Oil Securities Before and After the Murder | |Before |After | |Debt |$151. 25 million, |$250 million | | |60. % of face value |100% of face value | |Equity |$270 million, |$300 million, | | |$9 per share |$10 per share | |Convertible notes |103. 95% of |110% of | | |face value |face value |Notes 1. Debt, before: PV at 12% of the 5% coupon for 10 years, plus repayment of face value (100%) at year 10, is 60. 5% of the $250 million face value, or $151. 25 million. Debt, after: essentially risk-free. The debt will be repaid in short order and should trade very close to face value. The gain in market value is 1 Ã¢â¬â . 605 = . 395, or 39. 5% of face value. 2. Shares: Share price increases from $9. 00 to $10. 00. 3. Convertible notes: Conversion value before is 110 shares at $9 per share = $990 per $1,000 note. The bonds were trading at 5% over conversion value, or 1. 05? 90 = $1,039. 50. Note holders will convert prior to the takeover, receiving 110? 10 = $1,100. (If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t convert, they get only $1,000. ) In other words, the notes increase by 110 Ã¢â¬â 103. 95 = 6. 05% of face value. Thorndike Oil Table 2 Who Gained Most? (Figures in millions) | |Doris |John |Patsy | | | | | | |Debt |$1. 8 |0 |0 | | |(. 395? 4) | | | | | | | | |Stock |$1. 2 |$0. 5 |$1. | | |(1. 00 ? 1. 2) |(1. 00 ? .5) |(1. 00 ? 1. 5) | | | | | | |Convertible notes |0 |$0. 3025 |$0. 1815 | | | |(. 0605 ? 5) |(. 0605 ? ) | | |___________ |___ ________ |_________ | |Total |$2. 78 |$0. 8025 |$1. 6815 | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Rupert ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s shares would go to a charitable foundation formed to advance the study of financial engineering and its crucial role in world peace and progress. The managers of the foundationÃ¢â¬â¢s endowment were not expected to oppose the takeover.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Emotional appeals (sometimes called appeals to pathos) are powerful tools for influencing what people think and believeÃ¢â¬ (EverythingÃ¢â¬â¢s an argument 38). There are many methods that can be used to create an emotional connection with people. In the story called Ã¢â¬Å"The F wordÃ¢â¬ by Firoozeh Dumas, the author use humor to emotionally connect the readers to her story. In some instances when writers want to get a deeper message across to the audiences they use a sadder approach. In the commercial by AT&T, they try to get the message across texting and driving and the serious consequences.A good method that some authors use to get the attention and achieve a connection with the audience is by using humor. In the story called Ã¢â¬Å"The F Word,Ã¢â¬ the author, Firoozeh Dumas, talks about her experience growing up in American with an Iranian name that was very difficult for people to say. She goes to talk about how it was more of a struggle fitting in with her na me than anything else. Ã¢â¬Å"All of us immigrants knew that moving to America would be fraught with challenges, but none of us thought that our names would be such an obstacle. (Firoozeh Dumas 751) Being so fed up with the name butchering, she decides to change her name to a much easier American name, Julie. She goes by the name of Julie for a while then decides to go back to Firoozeh. She mentions in the book that after a while she stopped caring about what people call her and responds to just about any name that begins with an F (Firoozeh Dumas 754). Dumas was successful in getting her story across to the readers and many people in this country can relate to this story coming from a different country with a long or difficult name to say.To get a message across or create awareness, some authors and the media like to use more of a deeper more relatable approach, by having people talk about their life experiences, putting up graphic pictures, even show the tragedy that is occurring because of something. In the T. V. ad by AT&T, they raise awareness of the dangers of texting while driving. In the commercial, it had one word show up in the beginning that said, Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ and you hear the voice of a girl saying, Ã¢â¬Å"This is the text my sister was reading from me when she crashed her car and died. It was a quick sixteen second commercial, but it was a successful way of using pathos and good message to get across to the audience with a deep emotional connection. This shows that your life can change because of a simple message and affect those who love you. It can be very relatable to those younger drivers and even parents that like to use their cell phones while driving. Pathos is used when writers or even the media want to gain an emotional connection to their audiences and use emotional appeals to influence them. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ Word,Ã¢â¬ by Firoozeh Dumas, she uses humor to connect her story to her audiences.It was a very relatable story and was a good example of using pathos. Another successful form of pathos was in an advertisement by AT&T about texting and driving. It was a sad form of pathos but it was a good message to get across to the audiences that drive and like to use their cell phones. The use of pathos is widely used to influence and draw an emotional appeal to the readers. Some are successful with it and others fail to gain a connection. The story of Dumas and the advertisement by AT&T were both successful with the use of pathos.
HIV Prevention essays Some people think that HIV or AIDS is something that other people need to worry about like homosexuals, drug users, and people who sleep around. These ideas are mistaken. All young people need to take the threat of HIV seriously, except for the ones who are abstinent. HIV (scientifically known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. By killing or damaging cells of the body's immune system, HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. People diagnosed with AIDS may get life-threatening diseases called opportunistic infections, which are caused by microbes such as viruses or bacteria that usually do not make healthy people sick. This virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their baby during pregnancy or delivery, as well as through breast-feeding. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. Some people diagnosed with HIV, have a high chance of developing a certain form of cancer. Most of these people will develop AIDS as a result of their HIV infection. During the past decade, more than 400,000 individuals in the United States have been diagnosed with HIV or AIDS. Officials from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that the number of deaths from HIV and AIDS in the U.S. has dropped by a record of 47 percent. Officials attributed the reduction to an extremely effective combination drug treatment that allows people affected with HIV to live longer and healthier lives. Unfortunately, no such decline occurred in the new number of new HIV infections in the United States. The infection rate remains at about 40,000 new cases a year. HIV can be passed on because it would be present in the sexual fluids and blood of infected people. If infected blood or sexual fluid gets into your blood, then you will become ...
Thursday, November 7, 2019
The Petrov essays In the early 1950s Australia was rocked by the largest spy scandal in its history. In April 1954, a Soviet operative called Vladimir Petrov defected to Australia. His wife Evdokia followed him soon thereafter. It was an instant news sensation worldwide. What made it even more appealing as a news item was the fact that Evdokia Petrov was forcibly removed from the custody of Soviet field agents by Australian security forces, causing an uproar in both Australia and the Soviet Union. The loss of Vladimir and Evdokia Petrov caused serious damaged to the operational ability of the KGB, as both defectors were specialists in encryption/decryption and knew Soviet codes very well. The Petrovs were given false identities and lived out the rest of their lives in Australia. Vladimir Petrov was born in 1907 to a family of peasants living in Siberia. His working life began as a blacksmiths apprentice in 1919. Soon thereafter, he joined the Communist Youth Movement (Komsomol) and finished high school under the system of Soviet indoctrination. In 1930, the young Vladimir Petrov joined the Soviet Navy, but was recalled to Moscow in 1933 and allowed to enlist in the OGPU (later renamed as the KGB) . He began serving in China in 1937, however he returned less than a year later to work in the cipher section of the OGPU as director. By 1943 Vladimir Petrov was a Major. He was sent to neutral Sweden, where he immediately set about creating a spy network, operating out of the Soviet Embassy (located in Stockholm). Following the conclusion of the war, Petrov returned to the KGB head quarters, where he spent the next several years until he received a new assignment: he was to be a consul (effectively spy-master) in the Soviet Embassy in Canberra. His assignment was to create a full-scale spy ring in Australia and then to wage an espionage campaign against the country. His wife (Evdokia Petrov), a cipher clerk, came with him to Australia. Howe ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
70s Music and Style Essay Example 70s Music and Style Essay 70s Music and Style Essay 1970s Music The 1970s created a perfect musical bridge from the rebelliousness of the 1960s and the happy songs of the 1980s. Following the counterculture of the 60s, the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s created a trend of relaxing music as well as dance music. People may have grown tired of the fighting that happened the previous decade and many of them sought a refuge in dance clubs and other places to enjoy a good time. Out of this idea came the Disco movement. Of course, there was still the bands and artists that continued to speak of the ills of society, typically characterized by the punk music of the era. But it seemed to be a much happier era than the 60s proved to be. If ever a musical style defined a decade, Disco was the definition of the 1970s. Although its popularity was short, it created a great deal of songs and artists that people are still dancing to today. Van McCoyÃ¢â¬â¢s The Hustle has often been said to be the definitive disco track and many people say it was the first disco song created. Gloria Gaynor also enjoyed disco popularity with her anthem I Will Survive. The Bee Gees also helped to define the disco genre with their hit Jive Talkin. Their blockbuster StayinÃ¢â¬â¢ Alive is often the essence of the disco musical era. The Village PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s YMCA and Macho Man also helped to add to the popularity of this popular style. Unfortunately, it did not take long for the public to see discoÃ¢â¬â¢s silliness and commercialization , something that they had just rebelled against a few years earlier. Its lack of attention to musical significance helped add to its downfall after only a short time of popularity. The entire makeup of RB music has done a complete 180-degree shift from the 1970s to the present. In the 70s, RB music was all about setting a personal identity, both musically and vocally; it was about defining your own sound. Bands never sounded the same. Even the artists that shared the same sub-genres that are found within 70s RB (Philly soul, the Ohio sound, the Motown sound) had uniqueness to their music. However, there are two factors which contributed to the demise of individualism in RB music. Although disco had an extremely short run as a musical fad its height was from 1977-1979, it did extensive damage to the individualistic qualities that made 70s RB so diverse. Mind you, this was a slow transition. But by the time 1980 rolled around, many artists had shifted their focus from RB to the more pop-minded funk disco style of RB. This type of RB lacked the edge that was in the music before, and helped start the conformist principles that would haunt the RB genre through the 1980s. 970s instruments: The Drum Machine, Vocoder, and Synth The 1980s saw a dramatic change in instrumentation within RB music. While synthesizers and vocoders had been around for ages electronic music developers Wendy Carlos and Robert Moog created one of the first musical vocoders in 1970. The drum machine was a fairly new development, and the most crucial implement in the shift from idiosyncratic RB to the more conventional RB that would be the norm through the 1980s, and even through to today. The Linn LM-1 Drum Computer (released in 1980; was the first drum machine to use digital samples. Only 500 were ever made, but the list of those who owned them was impressive. Its distinct sound almost defines 80s pop, and it can be heard on dozens of hit records from the era, including The Human Leagues Dare, Gary Numans Dance, and Ric Ocaseks Beatitude. Prince bought one of the very first LM-1s and used it on nearly all of his most popular recordings, including 1999 and Purple Rain. Although this quote singles out pop music, the same can also be applied to RB. Artists were starting to shift toward a single defined sound, and this even morphed into new jack swing heading into the 1990s. This trend continues today, with artists not differing in instrumental or vocal style. As you can see, RB music has definitely changed from the 70s distinctive attitudes to the present-day attitudes. Unfortunately, I dont believe that RB will return to the state it was, where one voice differed from another, and the music was unique to its artist.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Summary of William Shakespeares Play As You Like It This As You Like It summary is designed to help you unpick this complex play from William Shakespeare.Ã We bring the story together in a fun and accessible way for readers new to As You Like It. As You Like It Ã¢â¬â Summary of the Plot Before the play has begun, Duke Senior has been banished (joined by some loyal attendants and Lords) to live in the forest by his usurping brother Duke Frederick. Duke SeniorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter Rosalind has remained in Court on her Cousin CeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s request and is being brought up as if she is her sister. Orlando is the youngest son of Sir Rowland de Bois and is hated by his eldest brother Oliver. Orlando has challenged the court wrestler Charles to a fight and Oliver encourages it as he knows that Charles is strong and Oliver wants his brother harmed. The Big Fight The fight is announced and Rosalind and Celia decide to watch the match but are asked to try and discourage Orlando from fighting Charles. When Rosalind speaks with Orlando she finds him to be very courageous and quickly falls in love with him. Orlando fights Charles and wins (it is unclear whether he is brave and strong or if Charles let him win out of loyalty to the family). Rosalind speaks to Orlando after the fight commending his bravery. She discovers that he is the son of Sir Rowland who was loved by her father. Orlando has fallen in love with Rosalind. Orlando is encouraged to leave as Sir Rowland was an enemy to Duke Frederick. Off to the Forest Le Beau, a courtier, warns that Duke Frederick has taken a dislike to Rosalind believing that she is more beautiful than his own daughter and that she reminds people of what he did to her father. Duke Frederick banishes Rosalind and Celia vows to go with her into exile. The girls plan to leave for the forest to find Duke Senior. They take the clown Touchstone with them for safety. The girls decide to disguise themselves in order to avoid being found out and for extra security. Rosalind decides to dress as a man Ã¢â¬â Ganymede, Celia poses as his poor sister Aliena. Life in the forest with Duke Senior is presented as contented though not without danger or hardship. Duke Frederick believes that Rosalind and his daughter have run away to find Orlando and employs OrlandoÃ¢â¬â¢s brother; Oliver, to find them and bring them back. He does not care if Orlando is dead or alive. Oliver, still hating his brother, happily agrees. Adam warns Orlando that he cannot go home because Oliver plans to burn it down and cause harm to Orlando. They decide to escape to the Forest of Ardenne. In the forest, Rosalind dressed as Ganymede and Celia as Aliena with Touchstone meet Corin and Silvius. Silvius is in love with Phoebe but his love is unrequited. Corin is fed up with serving Silvius and agrees to serve Ganymede and Aliena. Meanwhile Jaques and Amiens are in the forest happily passing the time with singing. Orlando and Adam are exhausted and starving and Orlando goes off to find food. He comes across Duke Senior and his men who are about to eat a great feast. He aggressively approaches them to get some food but they peacefully invite him and Adam to eat with them. Love Sickness Orlando is preoccupied with his love for Rosalind and hangs poems about her on trees. He carves poems into the bark. Rosalind finds the poems and is flattered, despite TouchstoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mocking. It is revealed that Orlando is in the forest and is responsible for the poems. Rosalind, as Ganymede, meets with Orlando and offers to cure him of his love sickness. She encourages him to meet with her every day and woo her as if she were Rosalind. He agrees. Touchstone has fallen in love with a shepherdess called Audrey. Audrey is bawdy and the couple are a foil to Orlando and Rosalind in that their love is unromantic, lusty and honest. Touchstone almost marries Audrey in the forest but is persuaded to wait by Jaques. Rosalind is cross because Orlando is late. Phoebe is followed on stage by the doting Silvius who is desperate for her love. Phoebe scorns him and Rosalind/Ganymede criticises her for being so cruel. Phoebe instantly falls in love with Ganymede, who tried to put her off by scorning her further. Phoebe employs Silvius to run errands for her, asking him to send a letter to Ganymede chastising him for being so rude to her. Silvius agrees as he would do anything for her. Marriage Orlando arrives apologising for his lateness; Rosalind gives him a hard time but eventually forgives him. They have a mock marriage ceremony and he promises to return in a couple of hours after joining the Duke for a meal. Orlando is late again and while Rosalind is waiting for him, she is given PhoebeÃ¢â¬â¢s letter. She tells Silvius to pass Phoebe a message that if she loves Ganymede then s/he orders her to love Silvius. Oliver then arrives with a bloody handkerchief explaining that Orlando is late because he wrestled a lioness in order to protect his brother. Oliver apologises for his wrong-doing and recognises his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s bravery and has a change of heart. He then notices Celia as Aliena and promptly falls in love with her. A marriage ceremony is arranged between Oliver and Celia/Aliena and Touchstone and Audrey. Rosalind as Ganymede gathers together Orlando and Silvius and Phoebe in order to resolve the love triangle. Rosalind/Ganymede asks Orlando; if she can get Rosalind to attend the marriage ceremony will he marry her? Orlando agrees. Rosalind/Ganymede then tells Phoebe to attend the marriage ceremony ready to marry Ganymede but if she refuses she must agree to marry Silvius. Silvius agrees to marry Phoebe if she rejects Ganymede. The next day, Duke Senior and his men gather to witness the wedding between Audrey and Touchstone, Oliver and Aliena, Rosalind and Orlando and Ganymede or Silvius and Phoebe. Rosalind and Celia appear as themselves at the ceremony with Hymen the marriage god. Happy Endings Phoebe immediately rejects Ganymede realising that he was a woman and agrees to marry Silvius. Oliver happily marries Celia and Orlando marries Rosalind. Jaques De Bois brings news that Duke Frederick left the court to fight his brother in the forest but instead found a religious man who encouraged him to give up the court and live a life of religious contemplation. He hands the court back over to Duke Senior. Jaques goes to join him to learn more about religion and the group celebrates the news and the marriages by dancing and singing.
Assignment 2: Internal Environmental Scan/Organizational Assessment This section provides the opportunity to develop your course projec...
Sustainability within National Parks Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words - 1Sustainability within National Parks - Essay Example MICE is commonly organised through meetings, exhibitions, conferences, corporate tra...
'This I weighI study on that point is nought to learn, al atomic number 53 to debunk what I already come. I intend that as ...
"This dead preciselycher and his fiend like queen", is the manner in which Malcolm describes Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. De...